Radiochemical purities were always greater than 97% without high-

Radiochemical purities were always greater than 97% without high-performance liquid chromatography purification. These synthetic approaches hold considerable promise as rapid and simple method for the radiofluorination of folate derivatives with high radiochemical yield in short synthesis time. In vitro tests on KB cell line showed that significant amount of the radioconjugates were associated with cell fractions, and in vivo characterization in normal Balb/c mice revealed rapid blood clearance of these radioconjugates with excretion predominantly by the urinary and partially by the hepatobiliary

systems. Biodistribution studies click here in nude mice bearing human KB cell line xenografts demonstrated significant tumor uptake and favorable biodistribution profile for [(18)F]-2-folate over the other conjugates. The uptake in the tumors was blocked by excess coinjection of folic acid, suggesting a receptor-mediated process. Micro-positron emission tomography images

of nude mice bearing human KB cell line xenografts confirmed these observations. These results demonstrate that [(18)F]-2-folate may be useful as molecular probe for detecting and staging of folate receptor-positive cancers, such as ovarian cancer and their metastasis as well as monitoring tumor response to treatment. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause genital warts and cancers in men. The natural history of HPV infection in men is largely unknown, and that information is needed to inform prevention strategies. The goal in this study was to estimate incidence and clearance of type-specific Rigosertib ic50 genital HPV infection in men, and to assess the associated factors.

Methods Men (aged 18-70 years), residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA, who were HIV negative and reported no history of cancer were recruited from the general population, universities, and organised health-care systems. They were assessed every 6 months for a median follow-up of 27.5 months (18.0-31.2). selleckchem Specimens from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were obtained for the assessment of the status of HPV genotypes.


In 1159 men, the incidence of a new genital HPV infection was 38.4 per 1000 person months (95% CI 34.3-43-0). Oncogenic HPV infection was significantly associated with having a high number of lifetime female sexual partners (hazard ratio 2-40, 1-38-4-18, for at least 50 partners vs not more than one partner), and number of male anal-sexual partners (2.57, 1.46-4.49, for at least three male partners vs no recent partners). Median duration of HPV infection was 7-52 months (6.80-8.61) for any HPV and 12.19 months (7.16-18.17) for HPV 16. Clearance of oncogenic HPV infection decreased in men with a high number of lifetime female partners (0.49, 0.31-0.76, for at least 50 female partners vs not more than one partner), and in men in Brazil (0.71, 0.56-0.

HVEM cDNA isolated from HT29 cells rendered HSV-resistant cells p

HVEM cDNA isolated from HT29 cells rendered HSV-resistant cells permissive for infection by the HVEM-restricted virus, suggesting that HT29 cells lack a cofactor for HVEM-mediated infection or express an HVEM-specific click here inhibitory factor. Passaging of HVEM-restricted virus on nectin-1-expressing cells yielded a set of gD missense mutations that each restored functional recognition of nectin-1. These mutations identify residues that likely play a role in shaping the nectin-1 binding site of gD. Our findings illustrate the utility of these receptor-restricted viruses in studying the early events in HSV infection.”
“Many studies have

claimed that hemispheric processing is split precisely at the foveal midline and so place great emphasis on the precise location at which words are fixated. These

claims are based on experiments in which a variety of fixation procedures were used to ensure fixation accuracy but the effectiveness Selleckchem 3-deazaneplanocin A of these procedures is unclear. We investigated this issue using procedures matched to the original studies and an eye-tracker to monitor the locations actually fixated. Four common types of fixation cues were used: cross, two vertical gapped lines, two vertical gapped lines plus a secondary task in which a digit was presented at the designated fixation point, and a dot. Accurate fixations occurred on < 35% of trials for all fixation conditions. Moreover, despite the usefulness

often attributed to a secondary task, no increase in fixation accuracy was produced in this condition. The indications DAPT cost are that split-fovea theory should not assume that fixation of specified locations occurs in experiments without appropriate eye-tracking control or, indeed, that consistent fixation of specified locations is plausible under normal conditions of word recognition. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Wild-type (wt) vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) strains stimulate plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) through Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and its adaptor molecule, MyD88. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-derived DC (G-DC), which do not express TLR7, are unresponsive to wt VSV due to inhibition of cellular gene expression by the matrix (M) protein. In contrast to its recombinant wt (rwt) counterpart, an M protein mutant of VSV, rM51R-M virus, stimulates maturation of G-DC independently of MyD88. These results suggest that, as in the case of G-DC, rM51R-M virus may stimulate pDC by mechanisms distinct from that by rwt virus. Studies presented here demonstrate that both rwt and rM51R-M viruses induced maturation of TLR7-positive DC derived by culture in the presence of Flt3L (F-DC), with the subsequent expression of type I interferon (IFN). F-DC are a mixture of myeloid (CD11b(+)) and plasmacytoid (B220(+)) DC, both of which respond to TLR7 ligands.

“Traumatic brain injury (TBI) activates several protein ki

“Traumatic brain injury (TBI) activates several protein kinase signaling pathways in the hippocampus that are critical for hippocampal-dependent memory formation. In particular, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a protein kinase activated during and necessary for hippocampal-dependent learning, is transiently activated after TBI. However, TBI patients experience hippocampal-dependent cognitive deficits that occur for several months to years after the initial injury. Although

basal activation levels of ERK return to sham levels within hours after TBI, we hypothesized that activation of ERK may be impaired after TBI. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received either buy PSI-7977 sham surgery or moderate parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury. At 2, 8, or 12 weeks after surgery, the ipsilateral hippocampi of sham surgery ISRIB datasheet and TBI animals were sectioned into transverse slices. After 2 h of recovery in oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid, the hippocampal slices were stimulated with glutamate or KCl depolarization, then analyzed by western blotting for phosphorylated, activated ERK and one of its downstream effectors, the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). We found that activation of ERK (p < 0.05) and CREB (p < 0.05) after 30 s of glutamate stimulation or KCl depolarization was decreased in hippocampal slices from animals at 2, 8, or 12 weeks after TBI as

compared to sham animals. Basal levels of phosphorylated or total ERK were not significantly altered at 2, 8, or 12 weeks after TBI, although basal levels of phosphorylated CREB were decreased 12 weeks post-trauma. These results suggest that TBI results in chronic signaling deficits through the ERK-CREB pathway in the hippocampus. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective. To investigate whether the health and functioning of the Baby Boom generation are better or

worse than those of previous cohorts in middle age.

Methods. Trend analysis of vital statistics and self-reports from the National Health Interview Survey for the 40-59 population. Specific outcomes (years of data): mortality (1982-2004); poor or fair health (1982-2006); nine conditions (1997-2006); physical functional limitations (1997-2006); and needing help with personal care, routine needs, or either (1997-2006).

Results. In 2005, the mortality rate of 59-year-olds, the leading edge of the Baby Boom, was 31% lower than that of 59-year-olds in 1982 (8.3 vs. 12.1 per 1,000). There was a similar proportional decline in poor/fair health, but the decline reversed in the last decade. From 1997 to 2006, the prevalence of reports of four conditions increased significantly, but this trend may reflect improvements in diagnosis and treatment. Functional limitations and need for help with routine needs were stable, but the need for help with personal care, while quite low, increased.

Discussion. Trends varied by indicator, period, and age.

Method To address these limitations, 55 clinically stable schizo

Method. To address these limitations, 55 clinically stable schizophrenia out-patients and 44 healthy controls completed a validated Animations Task designed to assess spontaneous attributions of social meaning to ambiguous abstract visual stimuli. In this paradigm, 12 animations depict two geometric shapes ‘interacting’ with each

other in three conditions: (1) ToM interactions that elicit attributions of mental states to the agents, (2) Goal-Directed (GD) interactions that elicit attributions of simple actions, and (3) Random scenes in which no interaction occurs. Verbal descriptions of each animation are rated for the degree of Intentionality attributed to the agents and for accuracy.

Results. Patients had lower Intentionality ratings than controls for ToM and GD scenes but Linsitinib the groups did not significantly differ for Random scenes. The descriptions of the patients less closely matched the situations intended by BAY 1895344 research buy the developers of the task. Within the schizophrenia group, performance on the Animations Task showed minimal associations

with clinical symptoms.

Conclusions. Patients demonstrated disturbances in the spontaneous attribution of mental states to abstract visual stimuli that normally evoke such attributions. Hence, in addition to previously established impairment on mentalizing tasks that require logical inferences about others’ mental states, individuals with schizophrenia show disturbances in implicit aspects of mentalizing.”
“There has been a steady increase in the prevalence of adolescent hypertension in recent years. In order to prevent target organ damages, it is important to determine the group of hypertensive E7080 mw adolescents. If repeatedly elevated blood pressure values are observed, with special emphasis on white coat hypertension, which is particularly frequent at this age, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is highly recommended before pharmacological

treatment is started. In addition, performing ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is recommended with target organ damage, resistance to therapy, and suspicion of secondary hypertension. The results of the widely available, simple-to-use device are easy to reproduce. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Visual self-recognition is often controversially cited as an indicator of self-awareness and assessed with the mirror-mark test. Great apes and humans, unlike small apes and monkeys, have repeatedly passed mirror tests, suggesting that the underlying brain processes are homologous and evolved 14-18 million years ago. However, neuroscientific, developmental, and clinical dissociations show that the medium used for self-recognition (mirror vs photograph vs video) significantly alters behavioral and brain responses, likely due to perceptual differences among the different media and prior experience.

Cilnidipine per se did not influence locomotor activity in tested

Cilnidipine per se did not influence locomotor activity in tested doses. Further, cilnidipine had no influence on effect of ethanol on rotarod performance. These results support the hypothesis that neuroadaptive changes in calcium channels participate in the acquisition and the expression of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Pediatric inguinal and scrotal

surgeries for inguinal hernia, cryptorchidism and hydrocele are common and usually involve the excision of a hernia sac. Groups at many centers send hernia sacs for pathological Citarinostat analysis to identify occult disease as well as structures that may have been erroneously resected. We hypothesized that, since the incidence of significant findings is low and the associated health care costs are significant, the routine pathological analysis DMXAA price of inguinal hernia sacs is unnecessary.

Materials and Methods: After receiving institutional review board approval we retrospectively reviewed pathology reports at our institution of patients who underwent surgery with an inguinal hernia sac sent for pathological analysis from January 2000 to September 2009. The primary outcome was to determine the

incidence of clinically significant structures in hernia sac specimens. The secondary outcome was to evaluate the costs associated with analyzing these specimens.

Results: A total of 2,287 boys and 441 girls underwent some enough form of inguinal or scrotal surgery during the study. In the 2,287 boys a total of 2,657 hernia sac specimens were analyzed, of which 2 (0.08%) contained clusters of epididymal-like tubules. Most unexpected findings were likely clinically insignificant, including mesothelial proliferation in 5.6% of cases, genital duct remnants in 0.8%, lipoma in 0.23% and adrenocortical rests in 0.04%. The average cost of analyzing hernia sac specimens at our institution was approximately $ 7,100 Canadian annually.

Conclusions: Routine analysis of inguinal hernia sacs is unnecessary and

costly, and should be reserved for cases in which resection of important structures such as the vas deferens is suspected.”
“The mechanism by which chronic administration of olanzapine induces a marked weight gain in patients with schizophrenia remains unknown. We examined the influence of long-term treatment with olanzapine on plasma levels of hormones regulating food intake and energy homeostasis in schizophrenia. In this study, olanzapine was administered to 28 Japanese inpatients for 16 weeks after switching from typical antipsychotic drugs or risperidone. At endpoint, no significant changes in body weight or body mass index were found. There was a significant decrease in the plasma levels of ghrelin without any accompanying change in active, n-octanoylated ghrelin. Serum levels of leptin tended to be increased and a significant reduction in plasma cortisol levels was found.

Whilst individuals

Whilst individuals PF477736 nmr with autism spend less time than is typical viewing people and faces in static pictures of social interactions, the opposite is apparent for those with WS whereby exaggerated fixations are prevalent towards the eyes. The results suggest more attention should be drawn towards understanding the implications of atypical social preferences in WS, in the same way that attention has been drawn to the social deficits associated with autism. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Microtubule-mediated anterograde transport is essential for

the transport of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) along axons, yet little is known regarding the mechanism and the machinery required for this process. Previously, we were able to reconstitute anterograde transport of HSV-1 on microtubules in an in vitro microchamber assay. Here we report that the large tegument protein UL36p is essential for this trafficking. Using a fluorescently labeled UL36 null HSV-1

strain, K Delta UL36GFP, we found that it is possible to isolate a membrane-associated population of this virus. Although APR-246 these viral particles contained normal amounts of tegument proteins VP16, vhs, and VP22, they displayed a 3-log decrease in infectivity and showed a different morphology compared to UL36p-containing virions. Membrane-associated K Delta UL36GFP also displayed a slightly decreased binding to microtubules in our

microchamber assay and a two-thirds decrease in the frequency of motility. This decrease in binding and motility was restored when UL36p was supplied in trans by a complementing cell line. These findings suggest that UL36p is necessary for HSV-1 anterograde transport.”
“Previous research has suggested that, when operating in a distributed attention mode, the visual system automatically represents visual displays by their overall statistics, rather than their individual proper ties. Recent neuropsychological work shows partly preserved distributed attention Rolziracetam in simultanagnosic patients, who are typically defined as only perceiving one object at a time. Here we assessed whether GK, a patient with simultanagnosia, shows averaging of stimulus properties when distributing his attention across a set of items. We manipulated different stimulus properties in two experiments: color shades and size. We found that, when GK was in a distributed mode of attention, he (incorrectly) identified the mean object from two classes of exemplars more than in a control condition, when only one exemplar class was present. Overall, this study suggests that automatic statistical processing of color and size is possible in simultanagnosia. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Elite suppressors (ES) are untreated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients who maintain viral loads of <50 copies/ml.

Here, we use private data from a real

drug discovery prog

Here, we use private data from a real

drug discovery program to carry out a blind evaluation of the RosettaLigand docking methodology and find that its performance is on average comparable with that of the best commercially available current small molecule docking programs. The strength of RosettaLigand is the use of the Rosetta sampling methodology selleck compound to simultaneously optimize protein sidechain, protein backbone and ligand degrees of freedom; the extensive benchmark test described here identifies shortcomings in other aspects of the protocol and suggests clear routes to improving the method.”
“BACKGROUND: Extensive data exist regarding the success rates and long-term outcomes of transsphenoidal adenomectomy (TSA) of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary tumors; however, few data exist regarding the extent of adenomectomy.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate surgical outcomes for the treatment of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas with regard to the extent of adenomectomy.

METHODS: A retrospective study of 282 patients with GH-secreting pituitary tumors who underwent TSA. Three surgical paradigms (1, 2, and 3) were applied, all of which differed in extent of adenomectomy. All participants were evaluated with oral glucose tolerance

tests (OGTTs) at 6-month intervals for 1.5 years and combined pituitary function tests at 1.5-year intervals after TSA. All surgeries were conducted by a single neurosurgeon at a single medical center. Biochemical remission was defined with insulinlike

growth factor 1 and OGTT results.

RESULTS: EPZ004777 in vivo The overall surgical remission rates were 89%, 87%, 64%, 70%, and 50% (nadir GH < 1 ng/mL on OGTTs: 96%, 95%, 73%, 84%, and 56%) for modified Hardy classifications I, II, IIIA, IIIB, and IV, respectively. The remission rates for modified Hardy classification I-IIIB improved to 42%, 68%, and 84% after application of surgical paradigms 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P=.002). Aggressive surgical resection did not worsen hypopituitarism. Among the 42 patients with modified Hardy classification IV, 24 (57%) achieved Poziotinib remission without recurrence after applying the aggressive paradigm 3 surgery.

CONCLUSION: An aggressive surgical approach may be critical to managing GH-secreting pituitary adenomas and does not increase the risk of postoperative hypopituitarism.”
“RIG-I and mda-5 are activated by viral RNA and stimulate type I interferon production. Laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2) shares homology with RIG-I and mda-5 but lacks the CARD domains required for signaling. The V proteins of paramyxoviruses limit interferon induction by binding mda-5 and preventing its activation; however, they do not bind RIG-I and have not been considered inhibitors of RIG-I signaling. Here we uncover a novel mechanism of RIG-I inhibition in which the V protein of parainfluenzavirus type 5 (PIV5; formerly known as simian virus type 5 [SV5]) interacts with LGP2 and cooperatively inhibits induction by RIG-I ligands.

Efforts thus far have resulted in titers either inferior to the n

Efforts thus far have resulted in titers either inferior to the native host and significantly

below the theoretical yield, emphasizing the need to computationally investigate and engineer the interaction between native and heterologous metabolism for the improved production of heterologous polyketide compounds. In this work, we applied flux balance analysis on genome-scale models to simulate cellular metabolism and 6-deoxyerythronolide B (the cyclized polyketide precursor to erythromycin) production in three common heterologous hosts (E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, and S. cerevisiae) under a variety of carbon-source and medium compositions. We then undertook minimization of metabolic adjustment optimization to identify single and MDV3100 order double gene-knockouts that resulted in increased polyketide production while maintaining cellular growth. For the production of 6-deoxyerythronolide B, the results suggest B. subtilis and E. coli are better heterologous hosts when compared

to S. cerevisiae and that several single and multiple gene-knockout mutants are computationally predicted to improve specific production, in some cases, over 25-fold. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Given a new uncharacterized protein sequence, a biologist may want to know whether it is a membrane protein or not? If it is, which membrane protein Verubecestat cost type it

belongs to? Knowing the type of an uncharacterized membrane protein often provides useful Cities for finding the biological function of the query protein, developing the computational methods to address these questions can be really helpful. In this study, a sequence encoding scheme based on combing pseudo position-specific score matrix (PsePSSM) and dipeptide composition (DC) is introduced to represent protein samples. However, this sequence encoding scheme would correspond to a very high dimensional feature vector. A dimensionality reduction algorithm, the so-called geometry preserving projections (GPP) is introduced to extract the key features from the Linsitinib purchase high-dimensional space and reduce the original high-dimensional vector to a lower-dimensional one. Finally, the K-nearest neighbor (K-NN) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers are employed to identify the types of membrane proteins based on their reduced low-dimensional features. Our jackknife and independent dataset test results thus obtained are quite encouraging, which indicate that the above methods are used effectively to deal with this complicated problem of predicting the membrane protein type. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Here we have used the BALB/c mouse model of murine CMV infection

Here we have used the BALB/c mouse model of murine CMV infection to identify latently infected hepatic cell types. We performed sex-mismatched bone marrow transplantation with male donors and female recipients to generate latently

infected sex chromosome chimeras, allowing us to distinguish between Y-chromosome (gene sry or tdy)-positive donor-derived hematopoietic descendants and Y-chromosome- negative cells of recipients’ tissues. The viral genome was found to localize primarily to sry-negative CD11b(-) CD11c(-) CD31(+) CD146(+) cells lacking major histocompatibility complex class II antigen (MHC-II) but expressing murine L-SIGN. This cell surface phenotype is typical of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). Notably, sry-positive CD146(+) cells were distinguished by the expression of MHC-II and did not harbor latent viral DNA. In this model,

the frequency of latently infected cells was found to be 1 to 2 per 10(4) LSECs, with an average copy number of 9 (range, 4 to 17) viral genomes. Ex vivo-isolated, latently infected LSECs expressed the viral genes m123/ie1 and M122/ie3 but not M112-M113/e1, M55/gB, or M86/MCP. Importantly, in an LSEC transfer model, infectious virus reactivated from recipients’ tissue explants with an incidence of one reactivation per 1,000 viral-genome-carrying LSECs. These findings identified LSECs as the main cellular site of murine CMV latency and reactivation in the liver.”
“Proteomic identification of human papillomavirus type 16 Pifithrin-�� supplier (HPV16) E6-interacting proteins revealed several proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated

proteolysis. In addition to the well-characterized E6AP ubiquitin-protein ligase, a second HECT domain protein (HERC2) and a deubiquitylating enzyme (USP15) were identified by tandem affinity purification of HPV16 E6-associated proteins. This study focuses on the functional consequences of the interaction of E6 with USP15. Overexpression of USP15 RSL3 in vitro resulted in increased levels of the E6 protein, and the small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of USP15 decreased E6 protein levels. These results implicate USP15 directly in the regulation of E6 protein stability and suggest that ubiquitylated E6 could be a substrate for USP15 ubiquitin peptidase activity. It remains possible that E6 could affect the activity of USP15 on specific cellular substrates, a hypothesis that can be tested as more is learned about the substrates and pathways controlled by USP15.”
“One of the two SP1 sites in the proximal enhancer of the human cytomegalovirus ( HCMV) major immediate-early (MIE) promoter is essential for transcription in human fibroblast cells (H. Isomura, M. F. Stinski, A. Kudoh, T. Daikoku, N. Shirata, and T. Tsurumi, J. Virol. 79: 9597-9607, 2005). Upstream of the two SP1 sites to -223 relative to the +1 transcription start site, there are an additional five DNA binding sites for eukaryotic transcription factors.

Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO “

Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO.”
“Poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (pGlcNAc) nanofiber-derived materials effectively achieve hemostasis during surgical procedures. Treatment of cutaneous

wounds with pGlcNAc in a diabetic mouse animal model causes marked increases in cell proliferation and angiogenesis. We sought to understand the effect of the pGlcNAc fibers on primary endothelial cells (EC) in culture and found that pGlcNAc induces EC motility. Cell motility induced by pGlcNAc fibers is blocked by antibodies directed against alpha V beta(3) and alpha(5)beta(1) integrins, both known to play important roles in the regulation of EC motility, 5-Fluoracil cell line in vitro and in vivo. pGlcNAc treatment activates mitogen-activated protein

kinase and increases Ets1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) expression. pGlcNAc activity is not secondary to its induction of VEGF; inhibition of the VEGF receptor does not inhibit the pGlcNAc-induced expression of Ets1 nor does pGlcNAc cause the activation of VEGF receptor. Selleck LCZ696 Both dominant negative and RNA interference inhibition of Ets1 blocks pGlcNAc-induced EC motility. Antibody blockade of integrin results in the inhibition of pGlcNAc-induced Ets1 expression. These findings support the hypothesis that pGlcNAc fibers induce integrin activation which results in the regulation of EC motility and thus in angiogenesis via a pathway dependent on the Ets1 transcription factor and demonstrate that Ets1 is a downstream mediator of integrin activation. Copyright (C) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.”
“Synaptic plasticity in inhibitory interneurons is essential to maintain a proper equilibrium between excitation and inhibition in hippocampal network. Recent studies showed that theta-burst-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) at excitatory synapses of oriens/alveus (O/A) interneurons in CA1 hippocampal check details region required the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1. However these

interneurons also express mGluR5 and the contribution of this receptor subtype in interneuron synaptic plasticity remains unexplored. We combined pharmacological and transgenic approaches to examine the relative contribution of mGluR1/5 in LTP at excitatory synapses on O/A interneurons. Bath-application of the selective mGluR1/5 agonist (s)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) induced LTP of compound excitatory postsynaptic potentials. DHPG-induced LTP was not prevented by application of either mGluR1 or mGluR5 antagonists, was still present in mGluR1 knockout mice, but was blocked by co-application of both antagonists. These results indicate that UP can be induced at O/A interneuron synapses by either mGluR1 or mGluR5 activation. As previously reported for mGluR1-dependent LTP, the mGluR5-dependent UP was independent of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.