No.: E–26/100.628/200; CNPq: Bolsa de Produtividade (WDS) Nível 1A, Proc. No.: 301836/2005-1, FAPESP Proc. No.: 09/52804-0 and BZG. Conflict of interest statement: The authors have no financial conflict of interest. This research is under the scope of the International Patents WO 07030901, Hydroxychloroquine molecular weight IN248654, ZA2008/02277, KR 1089400 and MX297263. “
“The authors regret that Shanta Dutta was omitted in the
author listing and Acknowledgements section. Dr. Dutta is now included in the revised author listing above and Acknowledgements section below. Contributors: MA, DS, DRK, SK, RLO, and JC participated in the design, conduct, and analysis of the study, and in the writing of the manuscript. SD did the lab test of all blood specimens and generated the data on typhoid and paratyphoid. SKB and BM participated
in the analysis and in the writing selleck compound of the manuscript. Conflict of interest: None declared. “
“Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) causes 1.7 million deaths per year . The current vaccine Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) is the most widely used vaccine in the world but has variable efficacy in children, ranging from 0% to 80%, and poor efficacy in adults. Therefore better vaccines against M.tb are urgently required, especially as the frequency of drug-resistant isolates continues to rise. A range of new generation vaccines are currently in various stages of clinical development, including modified BCG strains, proteins,
DNA and virally vectored subunit vaccines (reviewed in ). Understanding the mechanisms by which these candidates mediate protection will allow them to be used to the greatest effect as well as aiding more rational design of further generations of vaccines. Recombinant adenovirus serotype Hu5 expressing antigen 85A from M.tb (Ad85A) is one such candidate vaccine and has shown protection in mice and guinea pigs when given by the intra-nasal (i.n.) route ,  and . Administration of the vaccine i.n. generates a large population of 85A-specific CD8+ T-cells in the lung, which correlates with protection , , , ,  and . 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl Furthermore, Santosuosso et al. have shown that the location of the antigen-specific cells in the lungs plays an important role in protection . However, there is little information as the role of upper respiratory tract (URT) associated lymphoid tissue in protection against M.tb challenge. In mice, one of the principal lymphoid tissues associated with the URT is the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). The NALT, which is thought to be an inductive site for immune responses in the URT  is a lymphoid structure at the back of the nasal cavity above the hard palette, often compared to Waldeyer’s ring in humans, and has been described as having similar functions to the better studied gut-associated lymphoid tissue (reviewed in  and ).