m. and dinner for 12 weeks. Supplements were prepared by Nutravail Technologies (Chantilly, VA, USA) with Quercegen Pharma (Newton, MA, USA). Participants were monitored at monthly intervals during the study to ensure compliance with their 5-Fluoracil cell line supplement regimen. Each month,
participants completed a series of questionnaires via an online survey tool, including items that evaluated the extent to which they had completed the study protocol as directed. Following the 12-week supplementation regimen, participants were re-evaluated using a protocol identical to baseline assessment, including completing physiological measures, having blood samples taken following overnight fasting, and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical completion of the CNS Vital Signs test battery. Following completion of CNS Vital Signs testing at post treatment, participants were dismissed from the study. Data analysis The effects of quercetin on cognitive functioning were assessed using separate group by assessment session (3 × 2) mixed model Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical analyses of variance (ANOVAs). If violations of the sphericity assumption were detected, significance tests were also conducted using the Greenhouse–Geisser correction method. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Corrected and uncorrected analyses produced the same pattern of significant
and nonsignificant effects. Therefore, to simplify data presentation, uncorrected dfs are reported. Because multiple omnibus ANOVAs were conducted, Bonferroni corrected p values were used (p = 0.01) to assess main effects and interaction terms. Significant interactions were analyzed by examining Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical within-group simple effects, also corrected for number of analyses performed,
followed by post hoc mean comparisons using Tukey’s honestly significant difference (HSD) procedure. Effect sizes were reported using partial eta squared (η p 2), which represents effect size as a function of the total variance accounted for by the independent variable. All analyses were conducted with and without outliers (i.e. participants earning a scaled score below 50 on any of the domains). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The significance of results did not differ based on whether outliers were included. Thus, to ease interpretation, all analyses presented were conducted on the full sample. Results Preliminary analyses Independent t tests and chi-square analyses indicated that the three groups PD184352 (CI-1040) were comparable at baseline on all demographic variables (all p values > 0.10; see Table 1). Independent sample t tests revealed that the three groups were comparable at baseline on all CNS Vital Signs domain scores (all p values > 0.05; Table 2). Pearson-product moment correlations calculated on the neurocognitive domains assessed by the CNS Vital Signs at baseline indicated that all domains were strongly correlated with the Neurocognitive Index (NCI) total score and each other domain score (all p values < 0.001). Table 1. Demographic characteristics by group. Table 2.