2000; Devor et al. 2002). Inflammatory agents that induce pain in humans also result in nocifensive behavior in orofacial models in rodents and the inflammatory mediators that are upregulated in animals with TMJ inflammation have also been observed in the TMJ synovial fluid of TMD
patients (Sessle 2011). These observations, together with the fact that many of the drugs that are effective clinically in TN and TMD also show efficacy in animal models Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of IoN-CCI or TMJ inflammation, we can conclude them to be valid for testing new possible therapies. Still, all learn more available models have limitations, in particular those aimed at investigating neuropathic disorders. There is an acute need for more etiology- and pathophysiology-driven models. In the case of TN, models that target the trigeminal root may provide closer resemblance to human conditions. Some new models such as the trigeminal ganglion compression (Ahn et al. 2009b) or demyelination (Ahn et al. 2009a)
have taken the right direction and may prove to be useful in mimicking certain human Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical disorders. Finally, it must be emphasized Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that only through careful design and interpretation of the behavioral testing could animal modeling be advanced toward a better management of chronic orofacial pain. In general, when studying pain in laboratory animals, whether developing new therapeutic strategies or investigating the mechanisms involved in the pain-generating phenomena, a reliable way of measuring the behavioral outcomes is indispensable. It is important to note that these outcomes depend on a range of variables pertaining to the stimulus-response framework, and that only the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical former, the physicochemical parameters of the external stimuli, may be reasonably well controlled. However, the many physiological variables involved in transforming the stimulus into a motor response, either as
a simple reflex or a complex behavioral performance, are far less controllable (Le Bars et al. 2001). This is why only Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical after precisely defining the pain models and testing conditions, could safe comparisons be made across studies. With this aim, this review has summarized the currently available models of orofacial pain in mice and rats and has provided a critical Oxalosuccinic acid assessment of the methods used to evaluate behavioral changes following such models. Acknowledgments This study was supported by grants from the Fundación Alfonso Martín Escudero, and the Comunidad de Madrid (CAM7S2006-7SAL00305). Footnotes 1Apart from a rare condition of “facial migraine” – See Benoliel et al. (2008). Conflict of Interest None declared.
Synucleopathies make up a group of neurodegenerative disorders sharing in common the presence of intracellular inclusions comprised predominantly of α-synuclein (α-syn) amyloidogenic fibrils (Goedert 2001; Selkoe 2003; Shastry 2003; Norris et al. 2004).