Bisphosphonate and ocular risk Cases of iritis, episcleritis and

Bisphosphonate and ocular risk Cases of iritis, episcleritis and scleritis, but also conjunctivitis, have been reported after www.selleckchem.com/products/gm6001.html therapy with n-BPs (mainly alendronate, pamidronate disodium and zoledronic acid) in up to 1% [145–147]. This does not seem to constitute an exclusive complication for n-BPs, but they were rarely reported with first-generation BPs [148]. Eye inflammation can resolve after local GC administration, but some patients can recur

after BP rechallenge. In severe cases of uveitis and scleritis, it could be better to discontinue IV BP [149]. Bisphosphonate and the gastrointestinal tract Digestive problems are at the origin of most drug withdrawals with oral n-BPs, mainly due to oesophageal irritation learn more and upper gastrointestinal side effects [150]. They are poorly absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, of the order of about 1%. Moreover, their absorption is further reduced if they are taken with food find more and beverage such as coffee, milk, orange juice etc. Hence, the recommendation is to take them in a fasting condition with a glass of water and to remain fasting in an upright position for at least 30 min after swallowing the drug until the first meal of the day. These precautions help to prevent most upper gastrointestinal side effects [151]. Moreover,

the availability of weekly and monthly BPs has further decreased the frequency of the upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms [152–157]. It has been suggested that a lot of adverse

events in upper gastrointestinal tract might be already present prior to start BPs therapy [158] and that clinicians and patients may sometimes inappropriately attribute gastrointestinal complaints to therapy [159]. Irrespective of whether gastrointestinal symptoms in individual patients are linked with oral BPs or not, it should be remembered that such a link has not been reported with intravenous therapy. A study based on the General Practice Research Database containing anonymised patient records of about six million people in UK suggested a doubling of the incidence of oesophageal cancer with 5 years’ use of oral BPs [160], but this was not confirmed in another analysis of the same database [161]. No excess of gastric and colorectal cancer was found. Moreover, in patients with Immune system Barrett’s oesophagus on oral BPs, no increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma was observed [162]. Even if no definitive conclusion can be drawn from these studies, upper gastrointestinal investigation is recommended if a patient on BPs develops dysphagia and pain. Bisphosphonates and cardiovascular risk In the pivotal study of zoledronic acid versus placebo in postmenopausal osteoporotic women, atrial fibrillation reported as serious adverse events (SAEs) was more frequent in the actively treated patients (1.3% versus 0.5%; p < 0.001).

Similar problems were detected by Rantanen et al (2008) when stu

Similar problems were detected by Rantanen et al. (2008) when studying work–family conflict and job exhaustion over a 6-year time period. However, to assure that our results are

due to actual change over time, we used a parsimonious approach to test longitudinal invariance before testing our models. Furthermore, in contrast to previous studies in the field, which are often conducted within female-dominated work domains, such as professions within the healthcare sector, we used a national representative data set including a wide range of occupations and professions. Hence, gender dominance should be balanced out and results are generalizable to all kinds of occupational groups as well as groups in society.

BIBF1120 Conclusions Based on our results, selleck chemicals we draw the conclusion that the three constructs under investigation were interrelated, which may imply that negative spiral effects can be found between performance-based self-esteem and emotional exhaustion as well as between work–family conflict and performance-based self-esteem. This has an impact on emotional well-being, in such a way that emotional exhaustion might influence health negatively and increase the risk for burnout in the long run. To prevent emotional exhaustion and unhealthy strivings for performance and success in order to increase one’s feelings of self-worth, it seems to be important to reduce the this website individuals’ perceptions of imbalance between work and non-work. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Swedish Council or Working life (FAS, Grant No. 2005-0734, Grant No. 2008-0958 and Grant No. 2009-1077) and the Swedish

Research Council (VR, Grant No. 2009-6192). The study was in part funded by the Stockholm Stress Center, a FAS Centre of Excellence (FAS, Grant No. 2009-1758). The funding sources were neither involved in the conduct of the research nor the preparation of the article. We want to thank Dr. Martin Hyde for proofreading the article. Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in buy Cetuximab any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited. References Akaike H (1987) Factor analysis and the AIC. Psychometrika 52:317–332CrossRef Albertsen K, Rugulies R, Garde AH, Burr H (2010) The effect of the work environment and performance-based self-esteem on cognitive stress symptoms among Danish knowledge workers. Scand J Public Health 38(3 Suppl):81–89. doi:10.​1177/​1403494809352104​ CrossRef Alfredsson L et al (2002) Job strain and major risk factors for coronary heart disease among employed males and females in a Swedish study on work, lipids and fibrinogen.

4 and 0 04 genome equivalent (ge) by reaction) of a known quantit

4 and 0.04 genome equivalent (ge) by reaction) of a known quantity of DNA extracted from four strains: M. avium, M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare and M. gordonae (identified from the national French reference laboratory collection). Specificity and sensitivity were estimated against 30 non-mycobacteria (negative) strains and 31 mycobacteria (PF-3084014 positive), respectively. The collection contained reference and

environmental strains of mycobacteria, as well as, strains of the closely related CNM group, and other non-actinobacteria strains isolated from the environment [17]. Mycobacteria collection included MTC (n = 2) and leprae species (n = 1), as well as species of slow growing NTM (n = 13), and rapid growing NTM (n = 15). TaqMan® real-time PCR were performed in duplicate using an ABI7500 real-time PCR system (Applied

Biosystems), a Lifetech 7500 software version 2.0.6 (Applied Biosystems) and TaqMan selleck chemical fast virus 1-STEP Master Mix with 6-carboxy-X-rhodamine (ROX) (Applied Biosystems). The TaqMan® probes were labeled (Eurogentec) with the fluorescent dyes 6-carboxyfluorescein (5′ end) and Black Hole Quencher (3′ end). All reactions were performed in a 25 μl reaction mixture volume (2.5 μl of DNA) with 500 nM of forward primer, 500 nM of reverse primer, 50 nM of probe and 5 mM of MgCl2. Reverse transcriptase was inactivated immediately (95 °C, 45 s) according

to the manufacturer instruction, HSP990 price and real-time PCR consisted in 40 cycles of denaturation (95°C for 3 s), annealing and extension (both steps at 60°C for 30 s). Determinations of cycle threshold were performed by setting the instrument’s threshold line at 0.02 Galeterone ∆Rn units (fluorescence gain above the baseline divided by the ROX channel signal). Environmental analyses In order to compare the new real-time PCR method to the culture method, 26 tap water distribution points in Paris (France) were sampled between April 2011 and July 2011, corresponding to 90 samples. Briefly, one liter of tap water was sampled in sterile plastic bottle, then centrifuged at 5000 × g for 2h and finally re-suspended in 1 ml of water. Mycobacteria density was estimated by culture (Method A) in all these samples following the procedure previously described by Le Dantec et al. [28]. In parallel, DNA was extracted using two different methods: i) a bacterial DNA extraction kit (QIAamp DNA mini kit, Qiagen) according to the manufacturer recommendations (Method B), and ii) a phenol-chloroform extraction procedure according to Radomski et al. [29] (Method C). Extracted DNA was 10 fold diluted and mycobacteria density was estimated in duplicate using the new real-time PCR method. Using environmental samples, the new atpE targeting method was also compared a previously described rrs targeting method [17].

The phage-infected fermentation broth had to be

The phage-infected fermentation broth had to be discharged after chemical treatment, and no effective means of salvaging phage-contaminated fermentation broths were ever developed. Herein, feeding seed culture to the fermentation broth was proposed as an effective

remedial action and shown in Figure 8. Figure 8 Effect GW786034 datasheet of feeding seed cuture for phage infection in the 2-Keto-Gluconic Acid (2KGA) fermentation process. As for the infection of phage KSL-1 at 0th hour, when cell concentration decreased to 2.07 g/L at the 20 h of fermentation, fresh seed culture was fed. 2KGA fermentation continued to the endpoint with the produced 2KGA concentration of 159.89 g/L, which was 1.11 times of that infected fermentation at 0th hour without seed culture feeding. The total fermentation time decreased to 80 h with the complete consumption of glucose, and the productivity and yield of 2KGA increased to 2.0 g/L.h and 0.89 g/g. Interestingly, cell concentration showed a waving model which may contribute to the bacterial succession and co-evolution of bacteria and their viruses in an arms race [22]. When feeding fresh seed culture into the 8th -h infected fermentation broth, fermentation time decreased

to 72 h which comparable to the normal process. 2KGA concentration increased slightly from 168.85 g/L to 171.34 g/L. Table 1 summarized the overall fermentation performances of 2KGA production under the conditions of normal and phage infection with/without feeding fresh seed culture at various infection stages. Therefore, feeding fresh seed culture to infected fermentation broth was proposed once the cell SHP099 price concentration began to decrease after phage infection. And this proposed remedial action was effective to obtain the desirable 2KGA fermentation performance without stopping the 2KGA production process and discharging the infected broth. Table 1 Summary of 2KGA production from phage infection at different stages by Pseudomonas fluorescens K1005 Parameters   Without feeding seed cuture With feeding seed cuture Normal Infected phage at 0 h Infected phage at

4 h Infected phage at 8 h Infected phage Plasmin at 0 h Infected phage at 4 h Infected phage at 8 h Fermentation periods (h) 72 96 96 80 80 80 72 2KGA concentration (g/L) 178.45 ± 1.41 144.98 ± 1.61 150.79 ± 1.42 168.85 ± 1.95 159.89 ± 2.52 163.59 ± 1.55 171.34 ± 1.25 percent conversion(%) 91.99 ± 0.71 74.73 ± 0.83 77.73 ± 0.74 87.04 ± 1.00 82.42 ± 1.30 84.32 ± 0.80 88.32 ± 0.64 Total productivity (g/L.h) 2.48 ± 0.02 1.51 ± 0.01 1.57 ± 0.01 2.11 ± 0.03 2.00 ± 0.30 2.04 ± 0.02 2.38 ± 0.01 Maximum productivity (g/L.h) 2.61 ± 0.13 1.71 ± 0.17 1.79 ± 0.04 2.26 ± 0.05 2.15 ± 0.17 2.21 ± 0.06 2.54 ± 0.04 Yield (g/g) 0.99 ± 0.01 0.81 ± 0.01 0.84 ± 0.01 0.94 ± 0.01 0.89 ± 0.01 0.91 ± 0.01 0.95 ± 0.01 Conclusions The isolation and characterization of a specifically-infecting phage KSL-1 to 2KGA selleckchem producer Ps.

In contrast, both the French National Consultative Ethics Committ

In contrast, both the French National Consultative Ethics Committee and German Society of Human Genetics have broadened this biologic definition, noting that results of a genetic test are of interest to the extended family, including legal relatives such as spouses (France National Consultative Ethics Committee for Health and Life Sciences (CCNE) 2003; German Society of Human Genetics 1998). In Canada and the USA, however, the various guidelines examined applied primarily to physician disclosure to family, selleckchem rather than intrafamilial disclosure. These guidelines do not adopt positions Doramapimod solubility dmso defining the genetic family, instead affirming that with regards to

genetic information, the privacy considerations of the individual should prevail (Watson and Greene 2001; Canadian Medical Association 1999; American Society of Human Genetics 2000). While these debates regarding the appropriate definition KPT-330 ic50 of the family still persist, some jurisdictions have adopted legislation (generally more authoritative than guidelines) that defines family in relation to genetic information. The USA enacted the Genetic Information Non Discrimination Act (GINA) in 2008, which seeks to prevent the use of genetic information of individuals or their family members as grounds to deny access to health

insurance or employment. In defining family, the act identifies relatives up to and including fourth degree relatives (U.S. Bill H.R. 493 Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (110th Cong.) 2008). Further, the definition also includes eligible dependents, though eligible dependents are limited to married spouses and adopted children (U.S. Bill H.R. 493 Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (110th Cong.) 2008). By emphasizing

blood relatives and traditional legal relationships, the position of USA closely resembles the expanded biologic view of genetic family. The state of Illinois has adopted similar legislation, but also includes any individual related by blood or law to Phospholipase D1 the patient or his or her child or spouse, thus greatly increasing the pool of potential family members (Genetic Information Privacy Act 2009). Australia adopted guidelines for the use and disclosure of genetic information to patients’ genetic relatives, who are defined to include only individuals related by blood (Government of Australia 2009). Furthermore, disclosure is recommended to up to third degree relatives. These guidelines apply to disclosure by private sector health professionals (explicitly excluding public sector professionals/facilities and the government) without the consent of the patient, which might be why the boundaries of genetic relatives are so narrowly defined.

Enzymatic determinations of the plasma concentration

Enzymatic determinations of the plasma concentration ubiquitin-Proteasome system of total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were performed in our laboratory. TAS was determined using the NX2332 kit from Randox laboratories. GR was measured photometrically using

the RS 2368 kit. (Randox), SOD using the Superoxide Dismutase Assay Kit (Cayman chemical) and GPx with the Glutathione Peroxidase Assay kit (Cayman chemical). Statistical analysis Means and standard deviations (SD) were calculated for all measured variables. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) [19–22] were considered to be reference values of adequate intake. After pooling all participants together for each nutrient, participants were classified into two groups: those players who met the recommendation according see more to the DRI (REC group) and those who did not meet recommendations (NO-REC group). As two soccer matches were considered, these data from 56 measurements at each time point in

the match were included in the statistical analysis. Both groups (REC and NO-REC groups for each nutrient) were checked for normality using the Shapiro-Wilk (if n < 50) and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (if n > 50) statistical tests. Depending on the normality of these data, the Student-t test (parametric data) or the Mann–Milciclib cost Whitney U-test (non-parametric data) test was used. Thus, we compared the different blood parameters at each of the three time points during the soccer match (before, immediately after and 18 h after) for the REC and NO-REC groups. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

(SPSS Inc., version 16.0) was used for all analyses. The significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results General considerations in nutritional profile The mean of reported energy Liothyronine Sodium (n = 42) calculated from 8-d records was 2271 ± 578 kcal/day. The nutrition pattern of these players was characterized by a higher protein (15 ± 2%), a lower carbohydrate (44.3 ± 6%) and a higher fat diet (37 ± 7%), compared with the nutritional recommendations (protein 10-12%; carbohydrates 50-60%; fat <35%). Fiber ingestion was also lower (20 ± 7 g/day) than the recommendation (25–26 g/day). We also observed a higher cholesterol intake (340 mg/day) than recommended (<300 mg). Fatty acid intake was adequate, except for saturated fatty acids (12.4 ± 3% contribution to total energy).

This was performed on a gene 9 copy on a pMS119 plasmid using a u

This was performed on a gene 9 copy on a pMS119 plasmid using a unique MunI restriction site that was engineered between the codons 2 and 3 to generate gp9MunI. Into this site, DNA fragments encoding the tag sequences were introduced. In addition, longer fragments were introduced which encode two copies of the antigenic tag sequences, resulting in additional 36 and 32 residues in pMS-g9-DT7 and pMS-g9-DHA, respectively. Then, the functionality of the modified proteins was tested by complementation of an M13am9 phage infection (Figure 2 and

3). E. coli K38 bearing the corresponding plasmid was grown overnight in LB medium and plated with top agar containing 1 mM IPTG. After solidification of the top agar 10 μL this website of a phage suspension was applied on top of the agar. Plaque formation was observed after incubation at 37°C overnight. When the cells with pMS-g9-HA were infected with M13am9 clear plaques with a turbid ACY-738 purchase zone were visible on the bacterial lawn (Figure 2). Whereas no plaques appeared with the K38 cells containing the pMS plasmid (Figure 3, panel A), pMS-g7/9 transformed cells showed plaque formation down to the 105-fold

dilution step (panel B). In the absence of IPTG (panel C) plaque formation was observed at the 104-fold dilution which is most likely due to a low expression or to recombination events. When K38 cells with the pMS-g9-T7 (panel D) or with pMS-g9-HA (panel E) were used plaque formation was evident down to the 105-fold dilution step. Similarly, the plasmids encoding the double tags (panels F and G) showed efficient plaque formation, as it was observed on the plates with the suppressor containing E. coli K37 cells (panel H). These results suggest that the gp9 variants expressing the epitope-tagged proteins are functional and allow normal phage propagation. Figure 1 Variants of M13 gp9 proteins. Schematic overview of the gp9 variants used in this work. Into the wild-type a MunI restriction site was introduced between codon 2 and 3 resulting in two additional residues in GPX6 gp9MunI (A). Into this MunI site

short sequences were introduced encoding for the T7 tag in gp9-T7 (B) and for the HA tag in gp9-HA (C). In addition, a double tag was introduced into gp9 generating gp9-DT7 (D) and gp9-DHA (E), respectively. The 4SC-202 cell line protein sequence of each mutant is given in the single letter code. Figure 2 Plaque formation of M13am9 with gp9-HA coat protein. E. coli K38 bearing pMS-g9-HA was mixed with LB top agar containing 1 mM IPTG and poured on an agar plate. After solidification, M13am9 phage was applied and incubated at 37 °C overnight. Figure 3 Complementation of M13am9 infections by plasmid-expressed gp9. E. coli K38 bearing the respective plasmid was mixed with LB top agar containing 1 mM IPTG and poured on an agar plate. After solidification, 10 μL drops of serial diluted M13am9 phage suspensions were applied.

References Angermayr SA, Helligwerf KJ, Lindblad P, Teixeira de M

References Angermayr SA, Helligwerf KJ, Lindblad P, Teixeira de Mattos MJ (2009) Energy biotechnology with cyanobacteria. Curr Opin Biotechnol 20:1–7CrossRef Benemann J, Selleckchem Target Selective Inhibitor Library Oswald WJ (1994) Systems and economic analysis of

microalgae ponds for conversion of CO2 to biomass. Report to DOE-NETL http://​www.​osti.​gov/​bridge/​purl.​cover.​jsp?​purl=​/​137315-0uSjuX/​webviewable/​. Accessed 4 Feb 2011 Bird R, Riordan C (1984) Simple solar spectral model for direct and diffuse irradiance on horizontal and tilted planes at the earth’s surface for cloudless atmospheres, SERI/TR-215-2436, selleck products http://​rredc.​nrel.​gov/​solar/​models/​spectral/​. Accessed 4 Feb 2011 Blankenship RE (2002) Molecular mechanisms of photosynthesis. Blackwell Science, USACrossRef Bolton JR, Hall DO (1991) The maximum efficiency of photosynthesis. Photochem Photobiol 53:545–548CrossRef Chisti Y (2007) Biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnol Adv 25:294–306PubMedCrossRef Curtright AE, Apt J (2008) The character of power output from utility scale photovoltaic systems. Prog Photovolt Res Appl 16:241–247CrossRef Dismukes GC, Carrieri D, Bennette N, Ananyev G, Posewitz MC (2008) Aquatic phototrophs: selleck chemical efficient alternatives to land-based crops for biofuels. Curr Opin Biotechnol 19:235–240PubMedCrossRef Frölich C, Lean J (1998) Total solar

irradiance variations: the construction of a composite and its comparison with models. International Astronomical Union Symposium 185: new eyes to see inside the sun and stars. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dortrecht, the Netherlands Furbank RT, Hatch MD (1987) Mechanism of C4 photosynthesis. Plant Physiol 85:958–964PubMedCrossRef Megestrol Acetate Goldman JC (1979) Outdoor algal mass cultures II: photosynthetic yield limitation. Water Res 13:119–136CrossRef Gordon JM, Polle JEW (2007) Ultrahigh productivity from algae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 76:969–975PubMedCrossRef Gueymard C (2005) Simple model

of the atmospheric radiative transfer of sunshine (SMARTS), v. 2.9.5 Solar Consulting Services www.​nrel.​gov/​rredc/​smarts. Accessed 4 Feb 2011 Kiang NY, Siefert J, Govingee, Blankenship RE (2007) Spectral signatures of photosynthesis I. Review of earth organisms. Astrobiology 7:222–252PubMedCrossRef Marion W, Wilcox S (1994) Solar radiation data manual for flat-plate and concentrating collectors. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (based on the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) Version 1.1), Golden, CO National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap (2009) U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program https://​e-center.​doe.​gov/​iips/​faopor.​nsf/​UNID/​79E3ABCACC9AC14A​852575CA00799D99​/​$file/​AlgalBiofuels_​Roadmap_​7.​pdf.

The sweat sodium loss of participants in WCS (Table 3) is similar

The sweat sodium loss of participants in WCS (Table 3) is similar to values reported by other groups studying elite athletes [15, 28]. While there was no difference in sodium loss with the different

drinks, sodium balance was almost unchanged in the INW group compared to C and G conditions. This was a result of the INW drink being designed for full sodium replacement. Sodium intake is essential for the absorption and retention of fluid during exercise [27]. Results from hydration testing in other sports have shown elite athletes have difficulty replacing sodium lost during training using fluid replacement drinks [19, 29]. These finding, coupled with our results from CCS, can be explained in part by the ad libitum fluid consumption study protocol. This indicates athletes may have difficulty self-regulating https://www.selleckchem.com/products/c188-9.html their hydration requirements particularly in cold conditions, as it is easy to this website become caught-up in the focus and intensity of training and/or competition. This further supports the need for individual, sport specific

or relative fixed volume fluid replacement recommendations. Blood glucose carbohydrates intake Examination of the energy demands of Laser sailing by Castagna and Brisswalter [11] revealed aerobic metabolism is the main energy source used by elite sailors to fulfill muscle energy demands. As such, blood glucose levels in CCS were trending towards a decrease over time (p = 0.074), despite the supply of Pitavastatin research buy exogenous carbohydrates in the G

and IN groups; although, the average carbohydrate intake in these groups was only 61 g and 42 g respectively. Interestingly, the blood glucose concentration NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase of the C group was stable through the 2.5 h training session despite consuming no exogenous carbohydrates (Figure 1D). In comparison, trained cyclists working at 74% VO2max in laboratory conditions experienced a significant decrease in blood glucose after 90 minutes of cycling [30]. Examination of substrate metabolism during 60 minutes of cycling at 70% VO2max at 0°C revealed almost 60% of energy expenditure was from carbohydrate metabolism [31]. This level was maintained regardless of infused non-esterified fatty acids, suggesting that carbohydrates are a preferred source of energy in cold conditions as fatty acid metabolism has been found to increase based on substrate availability in temperature environments [32]. While the intensity of Laser sailing in conditions similar to CCS reached approximately 65% VO2max [11], this difference in intensity may have been enough to prevent deleterious changes in blood glucose in the C condition. In WCS, blood glucose levels were surprisingly unchanged between the drink conditions (Figure 2D). Although a main effect for time was observed (p = 0.

E-mail: [email protected] ​ciw ​edu Gas-Phase Prebiotic Chemistry in the S

E-mail: [email protected]​ciw.​edu IWP-2 price gas-phase Prebiotic Chemistry in the Solar System: How and Where Nadia Balucani Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, SAR302503 in vitro Perugia, Italy In the sequence of steps which are believed to have led from elementary particles to the emergence of life, an important one is certainly the formation of simple prebiotic molecules from parent species abundant in the Universe. The aggregation of H, O, N, C (and other element) atoms into molecules and the subsequent chemical evolution are occurring also

now in the Universe, as witnessed by the identification of more than one hundred molecules in the interstellar medium (encompassing also prebiotic

molecules such as glycolaldehyde, formamide and, tentatively, glycine) and by the gas-phase chemical evolution of the atmospheres of several solar objects like Titan. Simple as they might seem compared STA-9090 manufacturer to other processes of relevance in astrobiology, the formation mechanisms of many of the observed gaseous prebiotic molecules and radicals are far from being understood. In this contribution, the focus will be on the gas-phase chemical evolution of planetary atmospheres and cometary comae, the

gaseous environments of our Solar System where gaseous organic molecules have been observed. Similarly to the atmosphere of Earth, the atmospheres of the other planets click here (or satellites, like Titan) can be described as giant photo-reactors, where the energy deposited mainly by solar photons, but also by cosmic rays and other energetic particles, drives a complex gas-phase chemistry. In this specific context, gas-phase neutral–neutral reactions are expected to play a dominant role. A thorough characterization of the chemical evolution of planetary atmospheres relies on a multi-disciplinary approach: (1) observations allow us to identify the molecules and their number densities as they are nowadays; (2) the chemistry which lies behind their formation starting from atoms and simple molecules is accounted for by complex reaction networks; (3) for a realistic modeling of such networks, a number of experimental parameters are needed and, therefore, the relevant molecular processes should be fully characterized in laboratory experiments.