of human tissue show that many chronic pa


of human tissue show that many chronic pain syndromes are accompanied by abnormal increases in numbers of peripheral sensory nerve fibers. It is not known if sensory nerve sprouting occurs as a result of inflammation present in these conditions, or other factors such as infection or extensive tissue damage. In the present study, we used Batimastat mw a well established model of inflammation to examine cutaneous innervation density in relation to mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. Adult female rats were ovariectomized to eliminate fluctuations in female reproductive hormones and one week later, a hind paw was injected with carrageenan or saline vehicle. Behavioral testing showed that saline vehicle injection did not alter thermal or mechanical thresholds compared to pre-injection baselines. Carrageenan injections resulted in markedly reduced paw withdrawal thresholds at 24 and 72 h after injection; this was accompanied by increased mechanical sensitivity of the

contralateral paw at 72 h. Analysis of innervation density using PGP9.5 as a pan-neuronal marker at 72 h showed that inflammation resulted in a 2-fold increase in cutaneous innervation density. We conclude that inflammation alone is sufficient to induce sprouting of sensory cutaneous axon endings leading local tissue hyperinnervation, which may contribute to hypersensitivity XAV-939 chemical structure that occurs in painful inflammatory conditions. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU) modulated https://www.selleck.cn/products/ldc000067.html by speech sound is recognized as speech sound and activates the auditory cortex similar to audible sound. To investigate the mechanisms of perception, the effects of stimulus duration on N1m were compared

among air-conducted audible speech sound (AC speech), AC speech with carrier BCU and speech-modulated BCU in eight native Japanese with normal hearing. The Japanese vowel sound /a/ was used as a stimulus with durations of 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 60 ms. Comparison between AC speech with and without carrier showed that the presentation of carrier had no effect on N1m evoked by AC speech. Comparison among the three conditions showed that N1m amplitude for speech-modulated BCU differed from that for the two AC speeches. Moreover, N1m amplitude growth saturated at 40 ms for speech-modulated BCU, and at 20 ms for two AC speeches. These results suggest a difference in temporal integration of N1m between speech-modulated BCU and AC speech. Considering these results, it is reasonable to conclude that N1m evoked by speech-modulated BCU is influenced mainly by the ultrasonic component rather than demodulated audible sound. Given this finding, the notion needs to be considered that the mechanisms underlying perception and recognition of speech-modulated BCU depend on the ultrasonic component to some extent. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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