Thus, the rutile content of Co- or Ni-doped TiO2 films is more than GDC 0032 clinical trial that of the Fe-doped TiO2 films. In addition, the ionic radius
of Co2+, Ni2+, Fe3+, and Ti4+ are 0.72, 0.69, 0.64, and 0.605 Å, respectively. When the Ti4+ ions are substituted by TM n+ (Co2+, Ni2+, and Fe3+) ions, the difference in ionic radii between Ti4+ and TM n+ results in the lattice deformation of anatase TiO2, and the strain energy due to the lattice deformation facilitates the ART . Furthermore, the strain energy supplied by Co2+ doping is bigger than that of Ni2+ doping because the ionic radii of Co2+ is larger than that of Ni2+. Thus, the rutile content of Co-doped TiO2 films is more than that of Ni-doped TiO2 films. Ellipsometric spectra of the TM-doped TiO2 films With increasing dopant content, the optical properties of the doped TiO2 films will change due to the
increasing rutile content. SE is an appropriate tool to calculate optical constants/Pevonedistat concentration dielectric functions and the thickness of films because of its sensitivity and nondestructivity. The SE parameters Ψ(E) and Δ(E) are the functions of the incident angle, optical constants, and the film thickness. In our previous studies, the optical constants of some materials have been successfully obtained using TGF-beta signaling the SE technique [42, 43]. To estimate the optical constants/dielectric functions of TM-doped TiO2 films, a four-phase layered system Staurosporine (air/surface rough layer/film/substrate, all assumed to be optically isotropic)  was utilized to study the SE spectra. A Bruggeman effective medium approximation is used to calculate the effective dielectric function of the rough layer that is assumed to consist of 50% TiO2 and 50% voids of refractive index unity . Considering the contribution of the M0-type critical point with the lowest three dimensions, its dielectric function can be calculated by Adachi’s model: ϵ(Ε) = ϵ ∞ + A 0[2 − (1 + χ 0)1/2 − (1 − χ 0)1/2]/(E OBG 2/3 χ 0 2), where, E is the incident photon
energy, ϵ ∞ is the high-frequency dielectric constant, χ 0 = (E + iΓ), E OBG is the optical gap energy, and A 0 and Γ are the strength and broadening parameters of the E OBG transition, respectively [42, 44]. Figure 7 shows the measured SE parameters Ψ(E) and Δ(E) spectra at the incident angle of 70° for the TM-doped TiO2 films on Si substrates. The Fabry-Pérot interference oscillations due to multiple reflections within the film have been found in from 1.5 to 3.5 eV (354 to 826 nm) [42, 43]. Note that the interference oscillation period is similar across the film samples, except for the undoped TiO2 that has the maximum thickness. The revised Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm in the nonlinear least squares curve fitting can extract the best-fit parameter values in the Adachi’s model for all samples. The simulated data are also shown in Figure 7.