Students were performing alone. Finally, only participants in the intervention group were made aware about the importance of stress during CPR and thus may have responded differently to the stress questionnaires (Hawthorne effect). Thus, measurement of Bicalutamide 50mg performance is the preferred outcome measure and should be used in the future for similar research. As an alternative design, both groups could be made aware of stress but only one could receive a stress reduction intervention. Conclusions Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical A brief stress-coping strategy moderately decreased perceived stress without, however, significantly affecting performance
of rescuers in a simulated CPR scenario strongly enough to yield a statistically significant difference. Further studies into the effect of stress and stress reducing strategies are warranted; they should consider an intervention that is
still short yet somewhat stronger, for instance, by including not only questions but also self-guiding statements  and possibly a combination with instructions regarding leadership [5,35]. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Abbreviations CPR: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; ACLS: Advanced cardiac life support. Competing interest All authors have Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical no conflict of interests to disclose. Authors’ contributions All authors have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted. Particularly, Study concept and study design: SH, FT, NKS, SM; Data Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical collection and data analysis: SH, SP, KF and SM; Drafting the initial version of the manuscript: SH, SP, and KF. All authors contributed to and approved the final version of the manuscript. Pre-publication history The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-227X/13/8/prepub Acknowledgements SH was support partly by an unrestricted research grant from the Swiss National Foundation (SNF PBBSP3-128266) and partly
from Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the University of Basel, Switzerland. FT and NKS were supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation through GSK-3 the National Centre of Competence in Research on Affective Sciences. We thank all the staff of the intensive care unit, selleck products notably Marc Breuer, Martin Spychiger and Sabine Schweitzer, for their most helpful support during the study. We thank all involved students for participating in this study.
Inappropriate testing and treatments can lead to substantial over-expenditure in managing uncomplicated illnesses. Acute upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is one of the most common diagnoses seen in emergency departments (EDs) in the US. Between 1995 and 2000, there was an average of 8.5 million annual URI visits to the EDs , representing about 8% of all ED visits. In 2001–2002, about 23.