Eight-day-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: sali

Eight-day-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: saline-control (C) and morphine-treated (M). Naive animals were housed in home cages made of Plexiglas (65 cm × 25 cm × 15 cm) find more with sawdust covering the floor. Animals

were maintained on a standard 12-h dark/light cycle (lights on between 0700 h and 1900 h) at room temperature (22 ± 2 °C). The animals had free access to food and water. At birth, the litters were standardized to contain up to 8 pups per dam, and the pups remained with their mothers until 21 days of age. Rats at P8 were chosen because it is accepted that animals of this age are at a similar stage of neurological development to that of a human newborn (Fitzgerald and Anand, 1993). It is also accepted

that they are in a physiologically immature state (Pattinson and Fitzgerald, 2004) since this period is characterized by major developmental changes in the brain and plasticity of the Palbociclib supplier developing pain system (Bishop, 1982, Kim et al., 1996 and Rabinowicz et al., 1996). Animal handling and all experiments were performed in accordance with international guidelines for animal welfare. The protocol of this experimental study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the institution where the work was conducted. Each animal received saline (control group) or morphine (5 μg s.c. in the mid-scapular area; morphine group) starting at P8, then once a day for 7 days. This dose had been chosen based on a previous study by Rozisky et al., 2008 and Rozisky et al., 2010, and Reverse transcriptase it produced analgesia in all animals submitted to the tail-flick test. All treatments were administered at the same time each day (1100 h). One milliliter of morphine sulphate (Dimorf® 10 mg/ml, obtained from Cristália, Porto Alegre, Rio

Grande do Sul, Brazil) was diluted in 9 ml of 0.9% NaCl (saline). The formalin test was performed in 16-, 30-, and 60-day-old rats (Fig. 1). The number of animals used per group was 8 to 15. At the ages where we observed significant differences in the nociceptive behavior in the formalin test, the control and morphine groups were subdivided into four groups, each one designed to evaluate the effect of i.p. administration of an NMDA receptor antagonist or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), applied 30 min before the formalin test: (1) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug: 10 mg/kg of indomethacin (Indomethacin®, obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, São Paulo, Brazil) (Bastos et al., 2004) diluted in 1.29% sodium bicarbonate solution (control-indomethacin, morphine-indomethacin); (2) vehicle for indomethacin (vehicle I): 10 mg/kg of 1.29% sodium bicarbonate solution (pH = 7.4) (control-vehicle I, morphine-vehicle I); (3) NMDA receptor antagonist: 30 mg/kg of ketamine (Cetamine®, obtained from Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil) (Campos et al., 2006) diluted in 0.

Second, the lack of

transparency in highly complex and di

Second, the lack of

transparency in highly complex and diffuse wild seafood supply chains allows illegal and unreported catches to be easily laundered and mixed into legitimate supplies entering international trade. Third, very few tools currently exist to monitor and interdict illegal catches entering the United States through seafood imports. Fourth, significant quantities of illegal fish enter the USA. In 2011, an estimated 20–32% of the wild-caught marine imports into the USA (by weight) were from illegal and unreported catches, with a value between $1.3 billion and $2.1 billion. These findings are consistent with many other studies that show the prevalence of illegal fishing around the world and clearly reveal that consumers in the United States today face a high risk of unintentionally purchasing illegal seafood. The work reported here suggests that the United States funds significant

selleck screening library profits from illegal fishing activities by providing major opportunities for marketing illegally caught fish, and this has three implications for the USA seafood trade. First, the USA is one of the world’s biggest seafood markets, whose purchasing power has a significant impact on patterns of fishing and trade. Second, preventing the infiltration of illegal fish products into legitimate markets is inherently difficult as a result of the diffuse, complex, and opaque nature of seafood supply chains. LBH589 manufacturer Third, current regulations and border inspection practices Amisulpride in the USA are not effectively oriented towards the prevention or interdiction of trade in illegal fish products. This work has relied upon information supplied by over 150 key individuals who are warmly thanked for their collaboration: the wishes of those who wished to remain anonymous are respected. A full list of all source material is given in the supplementary

online material. Dr. Mimi E. Lam is thanked for her comments on the draft. Research underlying this paper and its submission for publication was supported in part by a grant from the World Wildlife FundPD03(WWF); however, the study design, collection, analysis, interpretation of data, findings and views expressed in this paper are wholly those of the authors. “
“Offshore CO2 storage’ refers to the injection of liquefied CO2 into deep geological formations beneath the seabed (e.g. depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and saline aquifers) for the purpose of storing it there on a permanent basis [1]. The storage in this manner of captured CO2 emissions from industrial installations and power plants has attracted considerable scientific and technical interest as a potential mitigation response to climate change [2]. Carbon capture, transport and storage (CCS) is politically well-favoured in several countries and is a prominent feature of several national, regional and international climate-related policy strategies [3].

While infection with HAV induces lifelong immunity in all cases a

While infection with HAV induces lifelong immunity in all cases and is mostly asymptomatic in children, it is often symptomatic in adolescents and adults causing acute hepatitis and

may, therefore, represent a substantial medical and economic burden. Prior to the development of HAV vaccines, human plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) from pooled donor IgG was administered as a pre- or post-exposure prophylactic measure, demonstrating the protective role of anti-HAV antibodies in humans. The concentrations of antibody achieved after passive transfer of immunoglobulin (or active induction by vaccination) are 10–100-fold lower than those produced in response to natural Selleckchem Afatinib infection, but are sufficient to protect against overt HAV disease. Experience regarding passive immunisation with Ig showed that individuals were protected with anti-HAV concentrations of 10–20 mIU/mL. However, since no absolute protective level has been defined for HAV, generally the lower limit of detection of the assay being used has been considered as the protective level. With this serological correlate Selleck Alectinib of protection, candidate vaccines against HAV

were rapidly developed and licensed; subsequently their efficacy has been confirmed in a number of studies and immunisation campaigns. Immune correlates of protection, when validated by a demonstrated clinical benefit, are extremely useful to the development of efficacious vaccines. In clinical terms, an AI disease may be defined as a disease in which tissue damage

is mediated by T cells and/or antibodies, resulting from a failure of self-tolerance. AI diseases may be organ-specific or systemic, depending on the organs and tissues affected. However, this is sometimes not a simple distinction, particularly in cases where there is apparent organ specificity despite autoreactive immune responses that target ubiquitous antigens. The innate immune system may contribute to the initial induction of antigen-specific autoreactivity and may participate in the effector mechanisms responsible for tissue damage, but activated T cells, antibodies, or both must also be detected many to establish a diagnosis of AI disease. From an immunological perspective, there is little evidence that vaccinations cause AI diseases – the pathological mechanisms underlying these diseases include complex features such as a genetic predisposition and chronic inflammation. Damage to target organs and tissues is usually the result of infiltration by activated immune cells and their subsequent cytokine production – the immune response is no longer regulated, leading to systemic disruption of physiological functions.

Full details of the purification procedure are available online a

Full details of the purification procedure are available online as Supplementary material to this article. The molecular mass of the toxin assessed by tricine SDS-PAGE (Schägger and von Jagow, 1987) and mass spectrometry, as well as the identification of tryptic fragments by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry confirmed that the toxin was Bbil-TX (Carregari et al., in press). Chicks were killed with isoflurane and the biventer cervicis muscles were removed and mounted under a resting tension of 1 g in a 5 ml organ bath (Panlab, Spain) containing aerated (95% O2 and 5% CO2) Krebs solution (composition, in mM: NaCl 118.7, KCl 4.7, CaCl2 1.88, KH2PO4

1.17, MgSO4 1.17, NaHCO3 25.0 and glucose 11.65, pH 7.5) at 37 °C, as described by Ginsborg and Warriner Selleckchem Galunisertib (1960). Stimuli (0.1 Hz, 0.2 ms) were delivered to the nerve from an LE 12406 TC stimulator (Panlab, Spain) and the muscle twitches were recorded using a TRI201AD force displacement transducer coupled to a Quad Bridge Amp and LabChart 6.0 software (all from ADInstruments Pty Ltd., Australia). Contractures to exogenous acetylcholine (ACh, 110 μM) and potassium selleck chemicals chloride

(KCl, 40 mM) were obtained in the absence of stimulation, before and after the addition of peaks P1–P3 or Bbil-TX, to test for myotoxic and neurotoxic activities (Harvey et al., 1994). After the initial tests with ACh and KCl, the preparations were washed and electrical stimulation was recommenced, with the preparations

being allowed to stabilize Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase for at least 20 min before the addition of peaks P1–P3 (a single concentration of 10 μg/ml) or Bbil-TX (0.5, 1, 5 or 10 μg/ml). Muscle twitches were recorded for up to 120 min or until complete blockade. Some experiments were done using preparations incubated with d-tubocurarine (d-Tc, 10 μg/ml) to examine the effect of Bbil-TX (10 μg/ml) on muscle responses to direct stimulation with supramaximal pulses (0.1 Hz, 2 ms). Other preparations were incubated at 22–24 °C to assess the influence of temperature on Bbil-TX-induced (5 μg/ml) neuromuscular blockade. In some experiments, the PLA2 activity of Bbil-TX was inhibited by pretreating the toxin with p-bromophenacyl bromide (p-BPB; 0.6 μM, 24 h, 23 °C) essentially as described elsewhere ( Rodrigues-Simioni et al., 2011) and then testing for neuromuscular activity. The diaphragm and its phrenic nerve were dissected from male Swiss mice killed with isoflurane. The preparations were mounted under a resting tension of 5 g in a 5 ml organ bath containing aerated (95% O2 and 5% CO2) Tyrode solution (composition, in mM: NaCl 137, KCl 2.7, CaCl2 1.8, MgCl2 0.49, NaH2PO4 0.42, NaHCO3 11.9 and glucose 11.1) at 37 °C, as described by Bülbring (1946). Supramaximal stimuli (0.1 Hz and 0.2 ms for indirect stimulation) were delivered from a Grass S88 stimulator (Grass Instrument Co.

Subjects then performed the following tasks, each for 30 s; i) qu

Subjects then performed the following tasks, each for 30 s; i) quiet standing with eyes open (QS EO); ii) quiet standing with eyes closed (QS EC); iii) one-leg standing with eyes open (OLS EO) and; iv) one-leg standing eyes closed (OLS EC). One-leg standing was performed on the dominant leg. For each task the subject was asked to remain with their feet positioned on specific points marked on the floor and to remain as still as possible for 30 s; the timer was started once the subject had established their balance. If the subject lost their balance

during the task (and moved their feet from the specific points), the trial was terminated and restarted until they were able to remain balanced for the full 30 s trial. For each MVC, the root mean Cyclopamine square (RMS) value was calculated over 0.2 s intervals of the raw EMG data, using an automated script Doramapimod manufacturer in Spike2 software. The greatest 0.2 s interval RMS value from the 3 MVCs was taken. For each muscle, the RMS of the EMG voltage over 0.2 s intervals was calculated throughout each 30 s task. To allow comparison of muscle activity between subjects this was normalised to the peak RMS value during an MVC for that muscle. The normalised RMS

values were averaged, disregarding the first and last 3 s of data. This gave one normalised value per muscle for each task. Co-contraction of antagonistic muscles (RF-ST and TA-GL) was calculated using Equation (1) (Rudolph et al., 2001). equation(1) Co-contraction Index = (lower EMG/higher EMG)∗(lower EMG + higher EMG)where; lower EMG and higher EMG represent the average normalised RMS value of the agonist and antagonist muscles. Statistical analysis was performed using SigmaPlot statistical VAV2 package. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare tasks and between the hypermobile and control groups for each muscle. Where data was not normally distributed, a logarithm transformation was used. Post-hoc analysis involved an all pairwise multiple comparison procedure using either the Holm-Sidak method or Tukey Test. A p-value of <0.05 was taken as significant. All subjects were able to complete

each task for 30 s on their first attempt. Fig. 1 shows normalised EMG RMS amplitudes of the 6 muscles measured during the 4 tasks for both groups. ANOVA revealed a significant effect of task on muscle activity (P < 0.001). Post-hoc analysis revealed that TA activity was significantly greater during task 4 compared with tasks 1 and 2 for both groups (P < 0.001; Fig. 1). GM activity was significantly greater during task 4 compared with tasks 1 and 2 (P < 0.05; Fig. 1) within the control group only; although it was observed to increase in the hypermobile group, this did not reach statistical significance. A co-contraction index was calculated for antagonistic muscles (RF-ST and TA-GL). ANOVA revealed a significant effect of task on TA-GL co-contraction (P < 0.001).

In the same way we can calculate the area of the sea surface cons

In the same way we can calculate the area of the sea surface consisting of an arbitrary number of intersecting regular waves. Under natural conditions, wave profiles are constantly changing with time in random fashion. Owing to the complex energy www.selleckchem.com/products/INCB18424.html transfer from

the atmosphere to the ocean and vice versa, the resulting surface waves are multidirectional. Information about a time series of surface displacements at a given point is usually available from a wave recorder or from numerical simulation. For the purpose of this paper we use the simulation approach and assume that a confused sea is the summation of many independent harmonics travelling in various directions. These harmonics are superimposed with a random phase φ, which is uniformly distributed on (–π, π). Thus we have ( Massel & Brinkman 1998) equation(80) ζ(x, y, t)=∑m=1M1∑n=1N1amn cos[km xcosθn+km ysinθn−ωmt+φmn],in

which the deterministic amplitudes amn are prescribed by the following formula: equation(81) amn2=2S1(ω,θ)ΔωmΔωn,where S1(ω, θ) is the input frequency-directional this website spectrum, Δωm denotes the band-width of the mth frequency, and Δωn is the band-width of the nth wave angle. The wave numbers km are given by the dispersion relation equation(82) ωm2=gkmtanh(kmh)and M1 and N1 are the respective numbers of frequencies and directions used in the simulation. We represent the input frequency-directional spectrum S1(ω, θ) in the form of the product of the frequency spectrum S1(ω) and the directional spreading D(θ), in which the JONSWAP frequency spectrum ( eq. (12)) is used, and for the directional spreading function D(θ) we adapt formula (20) with parameter s = 1. To simulate the sea surface, a time series of M  1 = 155 frequencies non-uniformly distributed in the frequency band 0.5 ωp   < ω   < 6ωp   and N  1 = 180 directions (Δθ   = 2°) were used. When the surface displacement ζ=ζ(x, y, t)ζ=ζ(x, y, t) is known, the area of random sea surface over the plain rectangle a × b is given by eq. (79). Let us assume that an area of 1 km  × 1 km  is covered by surface

waves induced by a wind of velocity changing from U = 2m/s to U = 25m/s and fetch X = 100 km . The relationship between the relative increase in area δ and wind Cediranib (AZD2171) speed U is shown in Figure 8. In a very severe storm, when U = 25 m s−1 and significant wave height Hs = 4.57 m, the increase δ approaches the value of δ = 0.77%. This paper examines some geometrical features of ocean surface waves, which are of special importance in air-sea interaction and incipient wave breaking. In particular, the paper demonstrates the influence of directional spreading on the statistics of sea surface slopes. Theoretical analysis and comparison with the available experimental data show that unimodal directional spreading is unable to reproduce properly the observed ratio of the cross-wind/up-wind mean square slopes.

Its activity decreases with sediment depth and is used for determ

Its activity decreases with sediment depth and is used for determining the rates of sediment accumulation (mass accumulation rate – MAR), linear accumulation rates (linear accumulation rate – LAR) and for dating consecutive learn more sediment layers. The 210Pbex activity is determined from the total activity of this isotope 210Pbtot in the sediment layer under examination, from which the activity of one of the products of 226Ra radioactive decay, e.g. 214Bi, 214Pb, should be subtracted. Several geochronology models based

on the vertical distribution of 210Pb and using its radioactive decay equation have been developed. Which model is chosen depends on the environmental conditions of the investigated area, e.g. sediment processes Apoptosis inhibitor (erosion, deposition), sediment focusing and sediment stability. In the current study, two models of 210Pb activity variability along vertical profiles were employed to investigate the rates of sediment accumulation and sediment dating (Robbins, 1978 and Appleby, 1997). The first model, known as CF:CS (the Constant Flux Constant Sedimentation Rate

model), assumes that there is a constant flux of 210Pb and that the rate of sediment deposition is constant as well. With this model the sedimentation rate can be calculated using the slope of the line derived from the linear regression of ln210Pbex and the depth layer according to the following (equations Bierman et al. 1998): equation(1) Ax=A0e−bx,Ax=A0e−bx, equation(2) v=λb, where Ax – excess 210Pb activity at depth x [Bq kg− 1 d.m.], A0 – activity at the surface layer [Bq kg− 1 d.m.], b – the slope defined by regression through the data, x – depth [cm], v – sedimentation rate – LAR [cm year− 1] and λ – 210Pb radioactive decay constant (0.03114 year− 1). By using this model it is possible to determine sediment MARs, which are a measure of sedimentation where changes in sediment density with depth occur owing to sediment compaction. The sediment MAR is calculated using the slope of the line derived from 4��8C the

linear regression of ln210Pbex and the cumulative depth (Brush et al. 1982): equation(3) Am=A0e−bm,Am=A0e−bm, equation(4) ω=λb, where Am – excess 210Pb activity at cumulative depth m [Bq kg− 1 d.m.], A0 – activity in the surface layer [Bq kg− 1 d.m.], b – slope defined by regression through the data, m – cumulative depth [g cm− 2], ω – mass sediment accumulation rate – MAR [g cm− 2 year− 1] and λ – 210Pb radioactive decay constant (0.03114 year− 1]). The age of a given layer is calculated using the equation: equation(5) t=mω. The second model, known as CRS (the Constant Rate of Supply model), is based on the assumption that the supply of unsupported 210Pb to the sediment is constant in time while the initial excess 210Pb activity (A0) varies inversely with the sediment MAR – ω ( Goldberg, 1963 and Boer et al., 2006): equation(6) A0ω=const.A0ω=const.

Furthermore, we used LC/MS to show that the extraction-derived pe

Furthermore, we used LC/MS to show that the extraction-derived peptide eluted with the same retention time as an Orc[1-11]-OMe, not Orc[Ala11], standard. We used extraction with CD3OD to show that methanol from the solvent is the source of the single methyl group found in the m/z 1270.57 peptide detected in H. americanus eyestalk tissue extracts, and applied Q-TOF-CID to show that the added methyl group is found only at the C-terminus of the peptide, Orc[1-11]-OMe. A second truncated, C-terminally methylated

peptide, SSEDMDRLGFG-OMe, was also identified based upon mass measurements and labeling experiments with CD3OD. Our work provides evidence to support the role of a tissue component, presumably an enzyme, in the production of the Orc[1-11]-OMe product. Our evidence

supporting enzymatic participation learn more in the formation of Orc[1-11]-OMe includes the following. First, the specificity associated http://www.selleckchem.com/products/PTC124.html with the observed single methylation at the peptide C-terminus is at odds with the outcome expected if a chemical acid-catalyzed esterification were responsible for methylation. The peptide sequence contains three additional targets for methylation (one glutamate and two aspartate residues) and, of the four methylation sites on the peptide, the glutamate residue is expected to be the favored target for acid-catalyzed methylation [17]. Second, we found no evidence for any products of acid-catalyzed esterification when full-length (NFDEIDRSGFGFN) and truncated (NFDEIDRSGFG) peptide standards were incubated in the acidic methanolic extraction solvent at room temperature for 24 h. Third, we found evidence to support the conversion of NFDEIDRSGFGFA, Erastin molecular weight a full-length, non-native orcokinin family peptide, to Orc[1-11]-OMe when eyestalk tissues were mixed with the peptide and extraction solvent. This conversion involved peptide truncation

(net loss of FA), with C-terminal methylation. This experiment provided evidence showing that tissue components play a critical role in Orc[1-11]-OMe formation and documented the conversion of a full-length orcokinin family peptides to the truncated, methylated Orc[1-11]-OMe product. Fourth, we observed significant, though not complete, inhibition of Orc[1-11]-OMe and Orc[1-11] production when an enzyme inhibitor cocktail was incorporated in the extraction protocol and, more definitively, found that insertion of the tissue/extraction solvent mixture into a boiling water bath provided the most effective method for preventing Orc[1-11]-OMe and Orc[1-11] formation. These two enzyme-deactivation methods provided the most specific evidence that an enzymatic, not chemical, reaction is responsible for the observed peptide conversion. Additionally, when we reduced the percentage of water in the extraction solvent, we observed that the formation of Orc[1-11]-OMe was reduced, but not eliminated.

A longer westerly wind fetch also induces more growth of the head

A longer westerly wind fetch also induces more growth of the headland at the Darsser Ort and more sedimentation in the channel between Bock Island and Hiddensee. The division factor of two (Run04) of the westerly wind sub-groups in the representative

wind series produces a better-fit coastline change to the measured data than the other two runs. In the third set of runs, Run03 (the same run as mentioned above), Run06 and Run07, the long-term effects caused by the different orderings of the wind sub-groups click here are calculated. Model results indicate that the long-term (100 years) coastline change is not very sensitive to the ordering of the wind sub-groups. Differences in the calculated bathymetric change at the same coastal profile

are within 7% among the different model runs, and the differences in coastline change at the same point (the coastal points are indicated in Figure 8) are within 4%. This may be due to two reasons: (1) the repetitive cycles of calculation with these wind series smooth out the differences caused by different orderings of wind sub-groups and (2) the effects of the dominant westerly winds cannot be eliminated by different orderings of the wind sub-groups. As a whole, Run04 (with a return period of 5 years for the NE storm and division of CYC202 solubility dmso the westerly wind sub-groups by a factor of two) produces the best-fit coastline change to the measured data in the last century. A digital elevation model (DEM) of the research area for the year PAK6 1696 was reconstructed on the basis of high-resolution bathymetric and topographic data sets measured in modern times (Zhang et

al. 2011). Based on the reconstructed DEM, a recent sediment map, an isostatic map, an eustatic scenario for the last three centuries (Meyer et al. 2008) and validated modules, the model was applied to hindcast the coastal evolution of the Darss-Zingst peninsula from 1696 to 2000 without taking into account anthropogenic influence (Zhang et al. 2011). The calibrated representative wind series serve as input conditions for the model. Successful validation of the representative wind series was shown by comparison between the modelled coastline change and the measured data along the peninsula with a RMSE = 61 m (which is about 1/5 of the averaged coastline change for the last 300 years). The simulated coastline in different time periods indicates a smooth evolution of the area in the last 300 years. Most of the coastline has been retreating except two parts: (1) the headland and its eastern side and (2) Bock Island. These two areas act like reservoirs where sediment converges, but the mechanisms driving their evolution are different. The growth of the headland is a combination of long-term wave dynamics (wave breaking, longshore currents) and short-term storm effects.

, 2011), a phenomenon referred to as sound symbolism It has also

, 2011), a phenomenon referred to as sound symbolism. It has also been reported that toddlers

are not only sensitive to sound symbolism (Maurer et al., 2006) but also make selleck chemicals use of sound symbolism in verb learning (Imai et al., 2008 and Kantartzis et al., 2011). The results from preverbal infants (Ozturk et al., 2013 and Peña et al., 2011) and those from toddlers (Imai et al., 2008, Kantartzis et al., 2011 and Maurer et al., 2006) support the idea that sound symbolism plays an important role in the ontogenesis of language (Imai and Kita, 2014, Imai et al., 2008 and Maurer et al., 2006). It is generally agreed that infants start to associate speech sounds and visual referents at around 12–14 months. At this age, however, the process is effortful because infants have limited information processing capacities and little experience in mapping words to the world (Fennell and Werker, 2003 and Werker et al., 1998). They may rely more on perceptually based cues that are available without prior word learning experiences, such as cross-modal correspondences between speech and visual input in their word learning. Indeed, previous research suggests that 14-month-old infants use sound-symbolic correspondences between speech sounds and object properties as a cue in their effort to establish word (speech sounds) – referent associations (Imai

et al., under review and Miyazaki et al., Pexidartinib cell line 2013). Thus, there is some evidence that sound symbolism helps young infants at the initial stage of word learning. However, how sound symbolism is processed in the infants’ brain has not yet been addressed in the literature. It is not conceivable that four-month-old infants are actively engaged in semantic processing when they hear speech sounds together with a visually presented referent (Stager & Werker, 1997). Thus, infants at this age are likely to process

sound symbolism perceptually, Dichloromethane dehalogenase possibly on the basis of cross-modal binding mechanisms. However, at later times, the influence of sound symbolism is likely to transpire in temporal windows compatible with higher-level information processing, i.e., the semantic level. In this study, we investigated how 11-month-old infants respond to sound symbolism. If perceptual cross-modal mapping ability scaffolds the establishment of word-referent associations, we might see the effect of sound symbolism in two time-windows: (a) in an early time window coinciding with the time period of perceptual processing, and (b) in a time window coinciding with higher-level cognition and/or semantic processing. We chose to study 11-month-olds because they are just about to say their first words but there is little or no evidence to date for the successful establishment of novel word-referent associations in experimental settings at this age. To examine this possibility, we recorded EEG from nineteen children during the presentation of novel word – visual shape pairs that were either sound-symbolically congruent or incongruent (Fig.