The standardisation was performed on data from a group of 3889 st

The standardisation was performed on data from a group of 3889 stillborn fetuses (2203 males and 1686 females) at between 25 and 41 weeks of pregnancy, as well as newborns who died within 24 hours within birth. Levels of somatic development in newborns from monochorional and dichorional pregnancies were compared for the following categories: fetal weeks (from 25 to 40) and lunar months (from 7 to 10), separately, for each sex. At the moment of birth, dichorional twins were characterised

by higher values of body mass, total length and crown and rump length, head circumference, and chest circumference when compared to monochorional ones (Tab. I). Due to the abundance of data, only standardised values (for fetal age) of the studied somatic features for both sexes (Tab. II) was presented in the tables. Variance analysis revealed significant variations between mono- and dichorional twins in terms of morphological development (Tab. III). Twins from monochorional pregnancies did not constitute a morphologically homogenous population. Among these twins,

a group with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (136 newborns BTK inhibition or 68 pairs) was distinguished, equalling 25% of the studied twins. In all of these 68 cases, non-symmetrical development of both twins was observed, which was indicated by a difference in the masses of both foetuses (greater than 20%). In this group, 12 monochorional, monoamniotic pregnancies were diagnosed. Twins from pregnancies complicated by the occurrence of TTTS were characterised by a lower level of development, achieving lower values in the studied somatic features for the respective week of fetal life when compared to monochorional twins without transfusion syndrome (Tab. IV). Intrauterine Cediranib (AZD2171) foetal growth inhibition may be caused by morphological-functional lesions within the placenta. Examples of such lesions include: lesions concerning

the structure of the placenta, limitations in the area of maternal-foetal blood exchange, circulatory disturbances, inflammatory lesions, and prematurely separated placenta. Wanting to compare the impact of two risk factors, that is, monochorionocity and placental burdens, the standardised values for somatic features from monochorional twins with placental burdens and those without them were compared by means of the t-Student test with features of mono- and dichorional twins having placentas with numerous morphological-functional lesions. In the group of monochorional twins, the ones without placental burdens achieved higher values of somatic features, but the differences were not statistically significant.

When comparing our study with the ones above, it is possible to a

When comparing our study with the ones above, it is possible to affirm that D. suavidicus is acting as an intermediate host for this parasite in that ecosystem. While a great quantity of larvae was found in the pericardic cavity of the host (maximum of 16 larvae), there was no necrosis or obstruction of the individual inside the valves. Although morphologically similar to the H. cenotae larva, the larvae

found in D. suavidicus are greater in size; while H. cenotae has an average total length of 5.34 mm, the one in question shows a total length of 19.0 mm. For the Neotropical region, there Daporinad clinical trial are only two known adult species of Hysterothylacium parasites of freshwater fish; H. rhamdiae collected in Argentina ( Brizzola and Tanzola, 1995) and H. cenotae in Mexico, ( Moravec et al., 1997), but none for the Amazonian region. There is large

numbers of record of Hysterothylacium larvae parasitizing freshwater and marine fish in Brazil ( Felizardo et al., 2009, Moravec et al., 1993, Tavares et al., 2004 and Luque et al., 2008) however; there is none of larvae or adults of Hysterothylacium in fish from the Amazonian region ( Thatcher, 2006). This suggests that in that region, the final host of Hysterothylacium could be a fish not yet studied or even another final host such as aquatic mammals or reptiles. From the record of larvae of Hysterothylacium species in D. suavidicus and lack of information regarding this region, complementary studies are necessary to identify the parasite species, understand its cycle and recognise its final hosts. To Programa de Capacitação em Taxonomia (MCT/CNPq/CAPES) for funding Dabrafenib solubility dmso field work and the doctoral scholarship of the senior author. To M.S. Rocha, G. Bonfim and “All Catfish Species Inventory” Project (NSF DEB 0315963) for helping in field work. To Dr. Célio Magalhães (INPA) who allowed access

to INPA’s mollusc collection. “
“The authors would like to notify readers Cobimetinib of Transfusion and Aphereses Science the following error which occurred during transcription of the data in the published manuscript: The number of the stored plasma for sterility testing is four not five as stated in the manuscript. We apologize for this error. “
“The Kpa antigen (KEL3, Penney) is a low incidence red blood cell antigen within the Kell system. Only approximately 2% of blood donors are Kpa positive [1]. Antibodies against antigens within the Kell system are usually IgG type and acquired through exposure to antigen positive red blood cells during pregnancy or transfusion, although the antibody may occasionally be naturally occurring, as was the case in the original description of this antibody [2]. Anti-Kpa alloantibody is known to be clinically significant and associated with both acute and delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions as well as hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) [2], [3] and [4]. Given the rarity of the Kpa antigen, antibodies to this antigen are not common.

To overcome the technical difficulties inherent to cell-based neu

To overcome the technical difficulties inherent to cell-based neutralization assays, we utilized

an electrochemiluminescence detection method, using the MesoScale Discovery (MSD) platform, to develop non-cell-based assays to assess the presence and nature of anti-IFN-β antibodies. In addition to a screening assay for binding Abs, we developed and characterized a non-cell-based assay, based Selleck AG14699 on the binding of IFN-β to its receptor, to detect and quantify IFN-β NAbs. We present here the first report of the use of a non-cell-based assay for the assessment of NAbs in clinical samples from IFN-β treated patients. Comparative data from this assay and existing cell-based neutralization assays are also shown. Patients sera have been grouped into 3 distinct cohorts (none overlapping), depending on the available

serum samples and the bioassay previously used. Cohort A (n = 46) includes post-treatment only samples, tested in the MxA protein assay. Cohort B (n = 10) includes post-treatment only samples, tested in the antiviral assay. Cohort C (n = 31) includes sequential samples (baseline and subsequent time-points), tested in antiviral and reporter gene assays. Pooled or individual sera from normal healthy CFTR activator donors were also included in the study (n = 27). Ethical approval and informed consent from patients and donors were obtained in accordance with the guidelines in the Helsinki Declaration for all sera tested. Therapeutic grade IFN-β-1a preparations were supplied to NIBSC directly by the manufacturer and routine supply chains. The recombinant human IFN-α/β R2/Fc chimera was obtained Avelestat (AZD9668) from R&D Systems (4015-AB) and the recombinant vaccinia virus-encoded neutralizing type I interferon receptor B18R, was obtained from eBioscience (14-8185). A lyophilized pooled human serum sample from IFN-β treated patients (coded 99/606, available from NIBSC) and a hyperimmune sheep polyclonal anti-IFN-β serum generated at NIBSC served as positive controls. IFN-β-1a was biotinylated with EZ-link

Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin (Thermo Scientific, 21335). The biotin, resuspended in water, was mixed with IFN-β to give a molecular challenge ratio of label/protein of 2 and the mixture left at room temperature for 1 h to enable the labeling reaction to reach completion. The labeled IFN-β was isolated using a PD-10 desalting column (GE Healthcare, 52-1308-00 AP), recovered in PBS and stored at 4 °C. The labeling of IFN-β-1a with ruthenium-NHS-ester was performed as per manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, the ruthenium-NHS-ester (labeled Sulfo-Tag, MSD, R91AN-1) was resuspended in cold distilled water and mixed with IFN-β to give a molecular challenge ratio of label/protein of 2. The reaction mixture was incubated for 2 h at room temperature and the conjugated IFN-β isolated by centrifugation using Amicon Ultra 3K centrifugal filters (Millipore, UFC800324), recovered in PBS and stored at 4 °C.

Amongst the other genes, Ube4b was shown to be responsive to TCDD

Amongst the other genes, Ube4b was shown to be responsive to TCDD across all four rat strains as well as the two lines, LnA and LnC. Ube4b encodes for an ubiquitination factor E4B, which binds to the ubiquitin moieties and accelerates ubiquitin chain assembly in synchrony with factors E1, E2, and E3, which subsequently tags aberrant proteins for degradation ( Koegl et al., 1999). We found that Ube4b is consistently dysregulated by TCDD treatment (2-fold

induction). It is unclear what role it plays in dioxin toxicity but it could be a protective mechanism that is elicited in response to exposure to xenobiotics. Interestingly, the AHR was recently shown to act as a ligand-dependent ubiquitin E3 ligase targeting e.g. sex hormone receptors and β-catenin for proteasomal degradation ( Ohtake and Kato, 2011). Glrx1, another gene whose mRNA abundances were statistically different between the treated and Doxorubicin untreated rats across all four rat strains, is a glutaredoxin that catalyzes deglutathionylation of protein-SS-glutathione mixed disulfides.

Glrx1 was induced more than 2-fold across all rat strains and lines. It is involved in protecting cells against oxidative stress ( Terada et al., 2010); up-regulation of Glrx1 may be a protective mechanism Etoposide concentration since other studies have also suggested its potential role in regulating apoptosis in cardiomyocytes ( Gallogly et al., 2010) and controlling autocrine and paracrine proinflammatory responses in retinal glial cells ( Shelton et al., 2009). Since L-E rats, which are much more sensitive to TCDD-induced liver tumor promotion than H/W rats ( Viluksela et al., 2000), exhibited an upward

trend in Glrx1 expression at the latest time-points analyzed ( Fig. 7), dysregulation of Glrx1 might have a role in the hepatocarcinogenicity of TCDD in rats. On the other hand, the enhanced Glrx1 expression coincides with aggravation of lipid peroxidation (an index of oxidative stress) in lethally TCDD-treated L-E rats ( Pohjanvirta et al., 1990). Another trend that was also consistent with our previous finding is that outside of the set of “classic” AHR-responsive genes, genes vary significantly in their responses to TCDD across the different rat strains. We identified a set of genes whose expression was significantly altered by TCDD in the sensitive rat strains but Dynein not the resistant H/W rats. These genes may represent predisposing genes that give rise to the observed toxicities to TCDD as mentioned above in the sensitive strains. For example, Slc37a4 encodes a transporter protein that transports glucose-6-phosphate to the microsomal lumen where hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase hydrolyses it to glucose and inorganic phosphate (Pi) ( Marcolongo et al., 2007). Deficiencies in the protein have been associated with disturbed glucose homeostasis and glycogen storage diseases ( Chou et al., 2002 and Pan et al., 2009).

Traditional agriculture suffers from much imponderability Chemic

Traditional agriculture suffers from much imponderability. Chemical synthesis seems to be an immediate alternative, but the resulting products must not carry the label ‘natural’ which, although scientifically unfounded, is preferred by the consumer. According to effective European law (EG 1334/2008) a ‘natural flavouring substance’ shall mean a

compound ‘obtained by appropriate physical, enzymatic or microbiological processes from material of vegetable, animal or microbiological origin ….’. In the US, the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR — Title 21) of the FDA contains a similar definition including the terms ‘enzymolysis’ and ‘fermentation’. Apart from the legal preference, biotechnology offers advantages especially Selleck Ribociclib for the generation of volatile flavours. Like other agonists, volatile flavours often carry stereo-centres, and both odour intensity and quality NVP-BKM120 are usually affected by the stereochemistry [1]. To execute their physiological functions, volatile flavours possess an internal clock. Not only the physical volatility, but also the chemical instability of the structures (thiol groups and aldehyde functions, tertiary alcohols, Z-double bonds, among others) limits their activity. As most bioprocesses run under ambient conditions without highly reactive chemicals in the system, volatile flavours should be among the preferred targets. More recent driving forces for a biotechnology

of flavours are the world-wide focus on a ‘greener chemistry’ and the association of certain flavours with beneficial health effects [2]. The obvious change of aroma from a fruit must to a fermented beverage are easily recognized without knowing about the (micro)biological reasons. In fact, the food industry has rediscovered fermentation as a gentle, versatile and natural means to create new products these [3].

Most of the more than 100 commercial volatile flavours from biotechnology were inspired by the empirical prototypes. Lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Lecuconostoc, or also Enterococcus faecium (!) were grown in milk with supplements of amino acids. The headspace volatiles identified were carbonyls and esters with simple structures, but great impact on the flavour of fermented dairy products [4]. Work of such kind is still required to find facultative flavour precursors, here leucine, phenylalanine and methionine, and to derive theoretical pathways of formation. Due to their hydrophobic nature, unsaturated fatty acids are popular flavour precursors. Lactobacillus helveticus converted oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids to hexanal, octanal, nonanal, 2-octenal, 2-octanal and the corresponding alcohols [5]. Isotopes labelled precursors, such as carbon labelled linoleic acid, build the metabolic bridge from substrate to flavour product. Monoxygenase P 450 or dioxygenase genes code for the enzymes typically responsible for the formation of these volatile oxylipins. However, no such genes were ever detected in L.


this research revealed some significant difference


this research revealed some significant differences during its persistence. An especially strong shift from general circulation patterns is observed during the developing phase of a dry period. The domination of meridional vs. zonal circulation patterns remains during the persisting phase, Cyclopamine cell line while ‘extra’ zonal circulation patterns occur during the attenuation phase of a dry period. Prolonged dry anomaly alterations to humid periods are very common in May–September in Lithuania. Moreover, the findings are confirmed by analyses of the atmospheric circulation and extreme conditions in the region (Rimkus et al., 2011 and Rimkus et al., 2013). The analysis of 14 cases when HTC was less than or equal to 0.5 for 15 consecutive days revealed the fact that the frequency of weather types in the whole ABT-888 order of Lithuania is significantly different from the respective values in the various regions (Table 2). Even though Lithuania is not a large country (ca 65 300 km2) this can be explained by different climatic features (Figure 1). The whole country lies in the air mass transformation zone between oceanic and continental climates: it is a hemiboreal climate (type Dfb) according to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification (Peel et al. 2007). Particularly significant differences between the western and southern parts of the country have already been observed in dryness analyses for the Baltic Sea region (Pankauskas and Bukantis, 2006 and Rimkus et al., 2012) and

the Nemunas river basin (Rimkus et al. 2013). Another possible not reason is methodological. We use the subjective (Werner & Gerstengarbe 2010) vs. objective (Fleig et al. 2011) Hess and Brezowski atmospheric macro-circulation form classification. Although the classification has been modified for Lithuania, there are shifting possibilities of weather patterns because of geographical features and long dry period phases (> 2 weeks). Different weather conditions could be identified using both methods, especially at the beginning and end of dry phases. A previous study by Bukantis & Valiuškevičienė (2005) showed that extreme air temperatures are mostly determined by meridional,

and extreme precipitation – by zonal circulation forms. However, extreme weather events are generated by diverse circulation forms if the whole country was used for determining circulation forms. Drought formation cluster analysis (Figure 1) explains clearly that circulation forms should be analysed for different parts of the regions, even though the territory is not that big. This statement was already endorsed by Rimkus et al., 2011 and Rimkus et al., 2012. Another possible reason for the variance is the inequality of dryness trends (Rimkus et al. 2013) in different parts of Lithuania. The dryness frequency remains practically the same in the western part of the country, while in other parts dryness tends to decrease. Dry periods usually correspond to high pressure fields (Parry et al., 2010 and Fleig et al., 2011).

, 2000, Gainotti, 2000 and Pulvermüller, Lutzenberger et al , 199

, 2000, Gainotti, 2000 and Pulvermüller, Lutzenberger et al., 1999). Therefore, although noun/verb dissociations in patient populations and differential brain activation to these categories have been reported in the studies above, it is unclear to what degree such dissociation depends on linguistic and semantic features of these word groups. In an attempt to take these confounds into consideration, Bedny et al. (2008) focused on nouns and verbs varying in semantic features, especially in their semantic relationship to motion

perception. We would like to consider these findings in detail as, despite a similar design, Bedny and colleagues’ stimulus selection along with their results dramatically differ from those reported here. Contrary to previous studies (Martin et al. 1996), these authors reported that activity in middle temporal regions close to motion-sensitive AZD5363 in vitro areas “responded preferentially to verbs relative to nouns, even when the nouns have higher visual-motion properties” (than verbs) (p. 11352) and hence suggested that “concepts… are organised according to conceptual

(lexical) properties” (p. 11347). In their attempt to tease apart lexical and semantic factors, these authors controlled semantic aspects related to visually perceived motion, grouping together animal nouns and action verbs as “high motion” items in spite of their fundamental differences with regard to a range of semantic dimensions. This neglect and lack of control for semantic aspects of Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease verb and Navitoclax chemical structure noun stimuli is a major shortcoming, as previous work has documented brain activation differences

related to semantic action- vs. object-relatedness, manipulability of referent objects of nouns, or action-relatedness of verbs (see next section; Brambati et al., 2006, Damasio et al., 2001, Martin and Weisberg, 2003, Pulvermüller et al., 2009 and Tranel et al., 2005). Bedny’s comparison of “high-motion” noun and verb categories, namely animal names and action verbs (such as “sheep” vs. ”grasp”), is problematic, as we have demonstrated in previous work that many animal words lack action-semantic links and, correspondingly, fail to elicit action-related brain activity, whereas action verbs, which represent the prototype of action-related lexical materials, activate cortical motor systems along with middle-temporal cortex (Moseley et al., 2012). It has indeed been suggested that the middle-temporal activation might reflect visual motion processing, but there is so far no firm proof for this hypothesis and general action-relatedness provides at least one alternative cognitive-semantic feature that may be reflected (Kiefer et al. 2012). Because likely semantic determinants of their middle-temporal activations were not sufficiently documented, the noun/verb difference in brain activation observed by Bedny et al. cannot be seen as unrelated to semantics. With greater control of semantic stimulus properties related to action and perception, our present findings as summarised in Fig.

HPLC (SHIMADZU, SPD-10 A VP) with the silicon C18 column was used

HPLC (SHIMADZU, SPD-10 A VP) with the silicon C18 column was used to separate and analyze PAHs under isocratic condition (solvent – acetonitrile:water (80:20) (v/v) detection wavelength – 254 nm). The flow rate of the mobile phase (acetonitrile) was maintained at 0.5 mL/min. The samples (20 μL) were injected to HPLC analyzer for the analysis of PAHs. Based on the retention time, the fractions were collected and further subjected to analysis. A Hewlett-Packard 689 gas chromatography equipped with

5973 mass spectrometer with HP-5MS (30 m × 0.25 mm I D × 0.25 μm) fused silica capillary column was used for the analysis. The column temperature program was set at 100 °C hold for selleck compound 1 min, 15 °C/min to 160 °C and 5 °C/min to 300 °C hold for 7 min. The GC injector was held isothermally at 280 °C with a splitless period of 3 min. Helium was used as the carrier gas, at a flow rate of 1 mL/min by using electronic pressure control. The GC–MS Anti-infection Compound Library mw interface temperature was maintained at 280 °C. The MS was operated in electron impact (EI) ionization mode with electron energy of 70 eV and the scan to determine appropriate masses for selected ion monitoring ranged from 50 to 500 amu (atom to mass unit). Standards from Sigma Aldrich were used for the PAH (anthracene) and their metabolites. GC–MS library search was

used to confirm the metabolites without standards. Genomic DNA (gDNA) of MTCC 5514 was extracted from using DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit (Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany) following the manufacturer’s protocol for Gram +ve bacteria. The 16S rRNA was PCR amplified using the universal primers 8F: 5′-AGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG-3′ and 1492R: 5′-GGCTACCTTGTTACGACTT-3′ as described by Turner et al. [29]. Homology of the 16S rRNA sequence was compared with sequences available in databases using Blast from the National Center for Biotechnology Information [2] and the Ribosomal Database Project [7]. Alignment of obtained 16S rRNA sequence and sequences from the databases, were all trimmed

to the same length using CLUSTAL Omega algorithm [26]. The sequence details were already submitted to NCBI with the wide accession no. HM145910. The genes encoding the biosurfactant (licA3) and catechol 2,3 dioxygenase (C23O) of the chosen organism was studied Roflumilast and the details were summarized in the following paragraph. The primers for both, surfactant (licA3) and catechol 2,3 dioxygenase (C23O) genes were designed from earlier reports [6] and [27] and were synthesized at Eurofins Genomics India Pvt. Ltd. A portion of surfactant gene 0.26 kb (licA3) gene was pulled out from the genomic DNA using F: 5′- CAA AAG CGC ATC ATA CCA CGT TGA G – 3′ and R: 5′-AGC GGC ACA TAT TGA TGC GGT TC – 3′ primers, with 2.5 U of Taq DNA polymerase in a 25 μL reaction mixture, consisting of 100 ng of genomic DNA, 20 pmol of each primer, 200 μM dNTPs and 1X Taq buffer with 2 mM MgCl2.

As its doppleganger in the colon, such epithelial misplacement ma

As its doppleganger in the colon, such epithelial misplacement may be superficial (gastritis cystica superficialis) or deep (gastritis cystica profunda), both of which are associated with wide cystic glands. Trauma from torsion of a pedunculated polyp, as in this patient, is thought to induce mechanical

disruption at the base of the polyp, promoting the deeper glands to migrate into the submucosa. A cuff of normal lamina propria usually surrounds these misplaced glands, with accompanying hemorrhage, and fibrosis in the vicinity of the “misplaced” glands. GCP has been thought to be a precursor of gastric cancer, although the number of such occurrences is small. As in the colon, one must be careful to distinguish the submucosal glands of GCP from invasive adenocarcinoma. To paraphrase St. Jerome, the scars of GW-572016 order others should have taught us diagnostic caution. Careful attention to the absence of an invasive growth pattern, a lack of cytological atypia, and stromal desmoplasia along with the history

of multiple diagnostic and surgical procedures help prevent a potential misdiagnosis. Lawrence J. Brandt, MD Associate Editor for Focal Points “
“A 61-year-old man Ruxolitinib datasheet was seen for weight loss of 20 kg over a 12-month period, mushy stools, and occasional watery diarrhea that contained fat globules. He did not describe joint pain or neurologic problems. On physical examination, the patient appeared malnourished, with loss of subcutaneous fat at the triceps, midaxillary line, and lower ribs; some wasting Vitamin B12 of the deltoid and quadriceps muscles and advanced temporal muscle wasting were present as well. Peripheral edema was absent, and the results of neurologic and joint examinations were

normal. The biochemical findings were consistent with advanced malabsorption syndrome. A complete blood cell count demonstrated microcytic hypochromic anemia (hemoglobin 6.8 g/dL, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 65.90 fL) with a serum iron level of 2.1 μmol/L (normal range, 15-42 μmol/L). His serum albumin was also low (2.6 g/dL; normal range, 3.5-5.0 g/dL). Additionally, the patient had low values of serum lipids: cholesterol level 2.70 mmol/L (normal range, 3.1-5.7 mmol/L), triglyceride level 1.08 mmol/L (normal range, 0.34-2.3 mmol/L), high-density lipoprotein level 0.47 mmol/L (normal range, 0.90-1.42 mmol/L), and low-density lipoprotein level 1.65 mmol/L (normal range, 2.59-4.11 mmol/L). The result of a qualitative fecal fat test (Sudan III) was also positive, whereas tests for carbohydrate malabsorption were not available. The result of a celiac disease antibody panel was negative. Abdominal US demonstrated sporadically dilated loops of small bowel with diffusely thickened intestinal wall (up to 7 mm) but with normal peristalsis.

Radawski, Melissa M, Grove City, OH; Ramchandani, Avinash, Austin

Radawski, Melissa M, Grove City, OH; Ramchandani, Avinash, Austin, TX; Rankin, Robert L, Horsham, PA; Rasheed, Seema, Houston, TX; Ray, Eric I, Dallas, TX; Reddy, Anita Kamagari, Chicago, IL; Reyher, John, Concord, CA; Richmond, Jonathan David, Northampton, MA; Rivera-Vega, Alexandra M, San Juan, PR; Rivers, William Evan, Chicago, IL; Rizkalla, Michael, Freehold, NJ; Robinson, William

Luke, Brownsboro, AL; Rosen, Ryan, Greenville, SC; Russell, Patrick Winston, Milwaukee, WI; Rydberg, Leslie, Chicago, IL; Ryu, Ji Young, Royersford, PA. Salimi, Negin, CP-868596 mouse San Diego, CA; Sambolin-Jessurun, Ivelisse Y, San Juan, PR; Santos, Lynette Repaso, Saint Louis, MO; Santz, Jos, Rosemead, CA; Sathe, Geeta G, Alexandria, VA; Sauter, Carley Nicole, Milwaukee, WI; Sayyad, Anjum, Aurora, IL; Schick, Laura Christine, Frisco, TX; Schiff,

Danielle Goss, Chicago, IL; Schleifer-Schneggenburger, Jill, Twinsburg, OH; Scollon-Grieve, see more Kelly Lynn, Plymouth Meeting, PA; Scott, Nicholas Alexander, Dallas, TX; Scott-Wyard, Phoebe, Los Angeles, CA; Scruggs, Justin, Durham, NC; Sellon, Jacob Lucas, Rochester, MN; Shah, Shivani G, New York, NY; Shaiova, Lauren Ann, New York City, NY; Sheps, Michal, Bronx, NY; Sherman, Scott D, Orlando, FL; Shroyer, Lindsay Nicole, Tampa, FL; Shuchman, Devon Newman, Ann Arbor, MI; Sigmon, Carter, San Diego, CA; Silver, Adam, Los Angeles, CA; Simmons, Charles W, Eagleville, PA; Singh, Diflunisal Albert Gunjan, Fishers, IN; Singh, Jaspal, Denver, CO; Sinha, Amit, Aurora, CO; Sirak, Michelle Leigh, Fort Lee, NJ; Siu, Gilbert, Blackwood, NJ; Smith, Marcus James,

Richmond, VA; Smith, Matthew Thomas, Birmingham, AL; Sollenberger, John, Phoenix, AZ; Sorkin, Lyssa Yve, New York, NY; Soteropoulos, Costa George, Richmond, VA; Spackman, Michael, Eagle, ID; Spencer, Kevan, Kailua, HI; Stadsvold, Chad Allen, Sioux City, IA; Staley, Tyler, Lexington, KY; Stenfors-Dacre, Celia, Riverton, WY; Stoner, Kristin Marie, Halesite, NY; Sueno, Paul Andrew, Portland, OR; Sunn, Gabriel H, Miami, FL; Swartz, Nathan D, Boise, ID. Taber, Joy, Brooklyn Park, MN; Tan, Huaiyu, Gulf Breeze Florida, FL; Tan, Wei-Han, Seattle, WA; Tang, Nelson, Hollis, NY; Temme, Kate Elizabeth, Milwaukee, WI; Tennison, Jegy Mary, Houston, TX; Terzella, Matthew, Scottsdale, AZ; Tolentino, Margarita, Whitefish Bay, WI; Torberntsson, Peter, Denver, CO; Travnicek, Katherine Dawn, Ashwaubenon, WI; Tsai, Tobias, Owings Mills, MD; Tsai-Li, Joy F, Chicago, IL; Tuamokumo, Timi, Lubbock, TX. Uyesugi, Betty, Columbus, IN. Van Why, David James, Haddon Township, NJ; Vasudevan, John Michael, Palo Alto, CA; Vazquez, Mohamed, Belton, TX; Velez, Kareen, Mountain View, CA; Villanueva, John Alexander Gorostiza, Philadelphia, PA; Vongvorachoti, Joe, Woodside, NY; Vora, Vaishali Suarez, Havertown, PA.