RESULTSThe quantitative morphometric analysis was technic

\n\nRESULTS\n\nThe quantitative morphometric analysis was technically successful in all cases. The mean parameters were as follows: compactness 0.88 +/- 0.086, MRD 0.83 +/- 0.056, RDSD 0.087 +/- 0.037, RDAR 0.045 +/- 0.023, zero crossings 6 +/- 2.2, entropy 1.43 +/- 0.16, MFD 4.40 +/- 3.14 cm, Feret ratio 0.78 +/-

0.089, CHA 0.98 +/- 0.027, CHP 0.98 +/- 0.030, EC 0.95 +/- 0.043, and El 0.95 +/- 0.023. MFD and RDAR provided the widest value range for the best shape discrimination. The larger tumors FK228 datasheet were less compact, more concave, and less ellipsoid than the smaller tumors (P<0.0001). AFP-producing tumors displayed greater morphologic irregularity based on several parameters, including compactness, MRD, RDSD, RDAR, entropy, and El (P<0.05 for all).\n\nCONCLUSION\n\nComputerized HCC image analysis using shape descriptors is technically feasible. Aggressively growing tumors have wider diameters and more irregular margins. Future studies will determine further clinical applications for this morphologic analysis.”
“Background: Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4)

is a systemic biomarker that GSK1838705A mw is significantly elevated in samples from patients suffering from hepatic cirrhosis. The protein is generally localized to elastic fibers and other connective tissue fibers in the extracellular matrix (ECM), and variation in systemic MFAP4 (sMFAP4) has the potential PR 171 to reflect diverse diseases with increased ECM turnover. Here, we aimed to validate an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the

measurement of sMFAP4 with an emphasis on the robustness of the assay. Moreover, we aimed to determine confounders influencing the basal sMFAP4 variability and the genetic contribution to the basal variation. Methods: The sandwich ELISA was based on two monoclonal anti-MFAP4 antibodies and was optimized and calibrated with a standard of recombinant MFAP4. The importance of pre-analytical sample handling was evaluated regarding sample tube type, time, and temperature conditions. The mean value structure and variance structure was determined in a twin cohort including 1,417 Danish twins (age 18-67 years) by mixed-effect linear regression modeling. Results: The practical working range of the sandwich ELISA was estimated to be 4-75 U/ml. The maximum intraand inter-assay variation was estimated to be 8.7% and 6.6%, respectively. Sample handling and processing appeared to influence MFAP4 measurements only marginally. The average concentration of sMFAP4 in the serum was 18.9 +/- 8.4 (SD) U/ml in the twin cohort (95% CI: 18.5-19.4, median sMFAP4 17.3 U/ml). The mean structure model was demonstrated to include waist-hip ratio, age, and cigarette smoking status in interactions with gender. A relatively low heritability of h(2) = 0.24 was found after applying a model including additive genetic factors and shared and non-shared environmental factors.

“The water-soluble chitosan derivative grafted with short

“The water-soluble chitosan derivative grafted with short amylose chains (Chit-Amy-Ill) was synthesized through the phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization, following that the chitosan was grafted with maltoheptaose residues by reductive

amination. The chemical structures were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, Raman, XRD and static light scattering analyses. The results indicated that the amylose chains were conjugated with the chitosan backbone through the reductive Shiff base bonds (-CH-NH-), and the polymerization degree of the grafted amylose chains was about 25. The dispersion stability of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in water was improved through the complexation of Chit-Amy-III derivatives with SWNTs. Raman, XRD and TEM analyses confirmed that the resultant β-Nicotinamide in vivo Chit-Amy-SWNTs complex was formed by the wrapping of the Chit-Amy-III derivative around the SWNTs. The results

of electrochemical analysis indicated that the Chit-Amy-SWNTs complex modified electrode displayed excellent electron conductivity and electrocatalytic activity on H(2)O(2). (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Highly branched alpha-glucan molecules exhibit low digestibility for alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, and abundant in alpha-(1 -> 3)-, alpha-(1 ->-6)-glucosidic linkages and alpha-(1 -> 6)-linked branch points where another glucosyl chain is initiated through art alpha-(1 -> GSK690693 ic50 3)-linkage. From a culture supernatant of Paenibacillus sp. PP710, we purified alpha-glucosidase (AGL) and alpha-amylase (AMY), which were involved in the production of highly branched alpha-glucan from maltodextrin. AGL catalyzed the transglucosylation reaction of a glucosyl residue to a nonreducing-end glucosyl residue by alpha-1,6-, alpha-1,4-, and

alpha-1,3-linkages. AMY catalyzed the hydrolysis of the alpha-1,4-linkage and the intermolecular or intramolecular transfer of maltooligosaccharide like cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase). It. also catalyzed the transfer of an alpha-1,4-glucosyl chain to a C3- or C4-hydroxyl group in the alpha-1,4- or alpha-1,6-linked nonreducing-end residue selleck chemicals llc or the alpha-1,6-linked residue located in the other chains. Hence AMY was regarded as a novel enzyme. We think that the mechanism of formation of highly branched alpha-glucan from maltodextrin is as follows: alpha-1,6- and alpha-1,3-linked residues are generated by the transglucosylation of AGL at the nonreducing ends of glucosyl chains. Then AMY catalyzes the transfer of alpha-1,4-chains to C3- or C4-hydroxyl groups in the alpha-1,4- or alpha-1,6-linked residues generated by AGL. Thus the concerted reactions of both AGL and AMY are necessary to produce the highly branched a-glucan from maltodextrin.

Method detection limits (MDLs) for the emissions tests ranged fro

Method detection limits (MDLs) for the emissions tests ranged from 0.03 to 0.5ng TDI g(1) foam (0.0020.04ng TDI cm(2) of foam surface), whereas those for the migration tests were 0.73ng TDI g(1) foam (0.16ng TDI cm(2) of foam surface). Of the three emission test methods used, the FLEC had the lowest relative MDLs (by a factor of 310) by virtue of its high chamber loading

factor. In addition, the FLEC cell offers well-established conformity with emission testing standard methods.”
“The purpose of this systematic literature review was to describe the empirical findings on health literacy in adults 65 and older. A systematic search for research studies BIBF 1120 order from 1999 to early 2010 was conducted in MEDLINE and CINAHL databases. Articles were analyzed using the following foci: skills and health knowledge, functional health literacy, and health behaviors and health outcomes. Findings indicated that advancing age resulted in a significant increase in prevalence of inadequate health literacy. Further research is needed to develop evidence-based, culturally congruent interventions to improve health literacy among older adults.”
“A typical plasmid replicon of Escherichia

coli, such as ori gamma of R6K, contains tandem iterons (iterated initiator protein binding sites), an AT-rich region that melts upon initiator-iteron interaction, two binding sites for the bacterial initiator protein DnaA, and a binding Blebbistatin cell line site for the DNA-bending BMS-754807 supplier protein IHF. R6K also contains two structurally atypical origins called gamma and beta that are located on either side of gamma and contain a single and a half-iteron, respectively. Individually, these sites do not bind to initiator protein pi but access it by DNA looping-mediated interaction with the seven pi-bound gamma iterons. The pi protein exists in 2 interconvertible forms: inert dimers and active monomers. Initiator

dimers generally function as negative regulators of replication by promoting iteron pairing (“handcuffing”) between pairs of replicons that turn off both origins. Contrary to this existing paradigm, here we show that both the dimeric and the monomeric pi are necessary for ori alpha-driven plasmid maintenance. Furthermore, efficient looping interaction between alpha and gamma or between 2 gamma iterons in vitro also required both forms of pi. Why does alpha-gamma iteron pairing promote alpha activation rather than repression? We show that a weak, transitory alpha-gamma interaction at the iteron pairs was essential for alpha-driven plasmid maintenance. Swapping the alpha iteron with one of gamma without changing the original sequence context that caused enhanced looping in vitro caused a significant inhibition of alpha-mediated plasmid maintenance. Therefore, the affinity of alpha iteron for pi-bound gamma and not the sequence context determined whether the origin was activated or repressed.

Genetic analysis of four populations resulted in the mean number

Genetic analysis of four populations resulted in the mean number of alleles per locus ranging from 10.25 to 14.58 and mean expected heterozygosity from 0.78 to 0.88. Cross-amplification of all 12 loci was attempted in six additional yucca species.\n\nConclusions: These loci should

prove useful for population genetic research in Yucca brevifolia, and cross-amplification of these loci in related species suggests that they may be useful in studies of hybridization and introgression between species.”
“Studies of food webs suggest that limited nonrandom dispersal Histone Methyltransf inhibitor can play an important role in structuring food webs. It is not clear, however, whether density-dependent dispersal fits empirical patterns of food webs better than density-independent dispersal. Here, we study a spatially distributed food web, using a series of population-dispersal models that contrast density-independent and density-dependent dispersal in landscapes where sampled sites are either homogeneously or heterogeneously distributed. These models are fitted to empirical

data, allowing us to infer mechanisms that are consistent with the data. Our results show that models with density-dependent dispersal fit the , , and tritrophic richness observed in empirical data best. Our results also show that density-dependent dispersal leads to a critical distance threshold beyond Quisinostat in vivo which site similarity (i.e., tritrophic richness) starts to decrease much faster. Such a threshold can also be detected in the empirical data. In contrast, models with density-independent dispersal do not predict such a threshold. Moreover, preferential dispersal from more centrally located sites to peripheral sites does not provide a better fit to empirical data when compared with

symmetric dispersal between sites. AG-881 Our results suggest that nonrandom dispersal in heterogeneous landscapes is an important driver that shapes local and regional richness (i.e., and tritrophic richness, respectively) as well as the distance-decay relationship (i.e., tritrophic richness) in food webs.”
“Increases in mortality of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) have been recorded across large areas of western North America following recent periods of exceptionally severe drought. The resultant increase in standing, dead tree biomass represents a significant potential source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, but the timing of emissions is partially driven by dead-wood dynamics which include the fall down and breakage of dead aspen stems. The rate at which dead trees fall to the ground also strongly influences the period over which forest dieback episodes can be detected by aerial surveys or satellite remote sensing observations.

Genetic distance resolves three large clusters One unites the so

Genetic distance resolves three large clusters. One unites the southernmost populations with those from north-central Gulf coastal Florida. A second encompasses southwest Gulf coastal populations. If three compound repeat loci are dropped from the data, these two clusters are united. The third group joins populations derived from the Central Highlands of peninsular Florida, which are genetically isolated from all other peninsular Florida populations, with populations of Iris fulva, Iris brevicaulis, Iris giganticaerulea, and Iris hexagona s.s., supporting recognition of the latter two as distinct species. Model-based Bayesian clustering supports high population differentiation (K = 22) and isolation of Central Highlands populations,

and it resolves the terminal clusters of the genetic distance topology. Isolation Bioactive Compound Library solubility dmso by distance is significant yet weak because of genetic distance relationships that contradict biogeographic expectations. We propose that the Lake Wales Ridge and Polk Uplands, which constituted the Wicomico shoreline during an early Pleistocene interglacial inundation, functioned as refugia for series Hexagonae. Moreover, we suggest that Florida iris populations occupying high, dry habitats close to the Central Highlands

ridges represent relicts of once-larger populations that adapted to the more xeric condition during the last glacial maximum. These populations have a distinctive floral phenotype and are related to species of Hexagonae iris outside of check details peninsular Florida. GM6001 concentration Excessively clonal populations may have been deliberately cultivated by Native Americans, which may also have influenced the connection between southern and north-central Florida populations, but there is insufficient evidence to validate this hypothesis. Many populations test positively for recent bottlenecks, which we attribute primarily to founder effects, given the low migration rates of the species and the high degree of population differentiation as well as the Holocene geological history of the Florida peninsula.

We present evidence of peripatric divergence in series Hexagonae iris and suggest that this may function as a significant generator of species diversity in the group.”
“Elasticity solutions of two-dimensional functionally graded rotating annular and solid disks with variable thickness are presented. Material properties vary through both the radial and axial directions continuously. Axisymmetric conditions are assumed for the two-dimensional functionally graded disk. The graded finite element method (GFEM) has been applied to solve the equations. The distributions of displacements and stresses in radial and axial directions for four different thickness profiles (constant, linear, concave and convex) and various power law exponents have been investigated. The achieved results show that by the use of functionally graded materials and variable thicknesses, the stresses are reduced, so a higher capability of angular velocity can be obtained.

“A useful patient admission prediction model that helps th

“A useful patient admission prediction model that helps the emergency department of a hospital admit patients efficiently is of great importance. It not only improves the care quality GSK923295 cost provided by the emergency department but also reduces waiting time of patients. This paper proposes an automatic prediction method for patient admission based on a fuzzy min-max neural network (FMM) with rules extraction. The FMM neural network forms a set of hyperboxes by learning through data samples, and the learned knowledge is used for prediction. In addition to providing predictions, decision rules are extracted from the FMM hyperboxes to provide an explanation for each prediction. In order to simplify the

structure of FMM and the decision rules, an optimization method that simultaneously maximizes prediction accuracy and minimizes the number of FMM hyperboxes is proposed.

Specifically, a genetic algorithm is formulated to find the optimal configuration of the decision rules. The experimental results using a large data set consisting of 450740 real patient records reveal that the proposed method achieves comparable or even better prediction accuracy than state-of-the-art classifiers with the additional ability to extract a set of explanatory rules to justify its predictions.”
“Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is common in patients with coma with a prevalence between 5% and 48%. Patients in deep coma may exhibit epileptiform EEG patterns, such as generalized periodic spikes, and there is an ongoing debate about the relationship of these patterns and NCSE. The purposes of this review are (i) to discuss the various EEG

patterns found in coma, its fluctuations, see more and transitions and (ii) to propose modified criteria for NCSE in coma. Classical coma patterns such as diffuse polymorphic delta activity, spindle coma, alpha theta coma, low output voltage, or burst suppression do not reflect NCSE. Any ictal patterns with a typical spatiotemporal evolution or epileptiform discharges faster than 2.5 Hz in a comatose patient reflect nonconvulsive seizures or NCSE and should be treated. Generalized periodic diacharges or lateralized periodic discharges (GPDs/LPDs) with a frequency of less than 2.5 Hz or rhythmic discharges (RDs) faster than 0.5 Hz are the borderland of NCSE in coma. In these cases, at least one of the additional this website criteria is needed to diagnose NCSE (a) subtle clinical ictal phenomena, (b) typical spatiotemporal evolution, or (c) response to antiepileptic drug treatment. There is currently no consensus about how long these patterns must be present to qualify for NCSE, and the distinction from nonconvulsive seizures in patients with critical illness or in comatose patients seems arbitrary. The Salzburg Consensus Criteria for NCSE [1] have been modified according to the Standardized Terminology of the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society [21 and validated in three different cohorts, with a sensitivity of 97.2%, a specificity of 95.

Results The mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the CC fibe

Results The mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the CC fibers interconnecting the primary motor (BA4), supplementary motor (BA6), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Selleck Proteasome inhibitor (BA9/46)

were significantly lower in ALS patients than in controls, whereas those of the primary sensory cortex (BA1, BA2, BA3), Broca’s area (BA44/45), and the orbitofrontal cortex (BA11/47) did not differ significantly between the two groups. The FreeSurfer ROI approach revealed a very similar pattern of abnormalities. In addition, a significant correlation was found between the mean FA value of the CC fibers interconnecting the primary motor area and disease severity, as assessed using the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale, and the clinical

extent of upper motor neuron signs. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there is some degree of selectivity or a gradient in the CC pathology in ALS. The CC fibers interconnecting the primary motor and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices may Crenolanib be preferentially involved in ALS.”
“BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Blister aneurysms of the supraclinoid ICA represent a rare but potentially catastrophic cause of SAH, often presenting both diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. We explore the utility of CTA in the identification and characterization of ICA blister aneurysms.\n\nMATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of catheter cerebral angiograms obtained at our institution over a 12-month Dinaciclib price period for evaluation of SAH, identifying 6 cases of ICA blister aneurysms. All patients underwent CTA and DSA for evaluation of SAH. The reports from the CTA and DSA

studies were reviewed to identify aneurysms correctly diagnosed prospectively. Retrospective review of the CIA and DSA images was also performed. Review of the interpretations and images was performed for any follow-up studies.\n\nRESULTS: All 6 patients presented with SAH, diagnosed by head CT. All patients subsequently underwent CIA prior to DSA evaluation. All 6 aneurysms were identified prospectively on initial DSA imaging. Of the 6 blister aneurysms, 4 (67%) were identified prospectively; and 5 (83%), retrospectively on CTA. All 6 patients underwent endovascular treatment with stent placement. Four of the 6 aneurysms underwent follow-up CIA (range, 9-22 days), including the 2 aneurysms that had been unidentifiable preprocedurally. All 4 blister aneurysms were seen postprocedurally by DSA. Three of these 4 (75%) residual aneurysms were detected by CTA (both prospectively and retrospectively).\n\nCONCLUSIONS: In the presence of SAH and otherwise negative findings on CIA, a catheter cerebral angiogram should be performed to absolutely exclude an ICA blister aneurysm.

Results Our cohort of SLE had grown front 272 to 442 patient

\n\nResults. Our cohort of SLE had grown front 272 to 442 patients front 2000 to 2006. The annual incidence of SLE showed Mild fluctuation (mean incidence 3.1/100,000 population; 5.4/100,000 in women). The annual death rate and SMR in year 2000 were 25.7/1000 and 7.88 (range 3.7-16.7 p < 0.001),

respectively. compared to the general population. A trend of reduction ill annual death rates and SMR was observed. the annual death rate and SMR in year 2006 being 6.8/1000 and 2.17 (range 0.7-6.7 p = 0.34). The SMR was higher ill men than women and had a less obvious trend of improvement. A negative correlation of SMR with age was observed. The SMR of SLE patients aged above 60 years was not significantly higher than expected from popultion statistics. click here There was also a trend of fewer deaths

Stem Cell Compound Library datasheet due to infection over time.\n\nConclusion. In this single-center study, the incidence of SLE remained static. The SMR of SLE was significantly increased in younger patients, indicating a greater effect of the disease on Younger individuals. There was a trend of improvement in SMR for SLE i recent years. probably as a result of fewer infectious complications.”
“A number of NMR spectroscopic and microscopic MRI (mu MRI) techniques were used to study proton dynamics in canine tendon and articular cartilage immersed in normal saline solution (NaCl solution) and high-concentration phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution. In a proton CPMG experiment on tendons, the T(2) relaxation of the tissue was found to be anisotropic and had two populations. When immersed in saline, the T2 values were short and their relative populations were anisotropic. When immersed in PBS, the T(2) values increased and their relative populations became isotropic. These phenomena, also verified by proton double-quantum-filtered

(DQF) NMR spectroscopy, were interpreted as the catalyzing effect of phosphate ions on proton exchange between water molecules. In the experiment on articular cartilage, the immersion of cartilage-bone blocks in PBS resulted in a significant reduction in the laminar appearance of cartilage on MRI (the magic angle effect). The quantitative T(2) anisotropy by mu MRI at 13 mu m pixel resolution and DQF NMR spectroscopy confirmed the substantial effect of PBS on the water dynamics in cartilage tissue blocks. This preliminary study has two important implications. For in vitro cartilage research, this work confirms the importance of the salt solution in which the specimen is stored – not all salts have the same effect on the measurable quantities in NMR and MRI.

05) as control

chocolates (MC-0 and DC-0) Similar likene

05) as control

chocolates (MC-0 and DC-0). Similar likeness were shown by both trained panels and untrained Malaysian public consumers, where prebiotic milk chocolate MC-1 was the most preferred compare to prebiotic dark chocolate DC-1. This could be due to bitter taste driven by high cocoa liquor content in dark chocolate compared to milk chocolate. However, both type of prebiotic chocolates have high potential ( bigger than 70%) to be bought by Malaysian consumers once introduced in the market.”
“High-spin molecules have been proposed as candidates for the storage of information at the molecular level. The electronic structure of two complex magnetic molecular systems, Mn-10 and Mn-19, is characterized by means of a computational study based on density functional theory. All the exchange interactions

in the recently reported Mn-19 BMS-754807 complex with the highest known spin value of 83/2, and in its highly symmetric Mn-10 parent compound, are ferromagnetic. In these complexes, there are two kinds of ferromagnetic coupling: the first one corresponds to Mn-II-Mn-III. interactions through a double mu(2)-alkoxo-mu(4)-oxo bridge where the high coordination number of the Moll cations results in long Mn-II-O bond distances, while the second one involves Mn-III-Mn-III interactions through mu(2)-alkoxo-mu(3)-eta(1):eta(1):eta(1) azido bridging ligands with long Mn-III-N distances

due to a Jahn-Teller effect.”
“Blood pressure variability (BPV) is a classical physiological phenomenon. This paper describes major epidemiological and clinical issues of BPV which may be important to understand the background of this interesting feature. In healthy subjects, BPV is a measure of hemodynamic condition and reflects function of autonomic nervous system. BP fluctuations result from the complex interaction between environmental stimulation, learn more genetic factors and cardiovascular control mechanisms. Abnormal BPV is recognized in persons with a blurred dipping pattern (i.e. extreme dipping, non-dipping, reverse-dipping, morning surge of BP) or increased variations of day-time or night-time BP (high BP lability). Inappropriate BPV worsens the outcome, including increase in all-cause and cardiac mortality and incidence of cardiovascular events, and advance in target organ damage. Abnormal BPV may be softened or removed with suitable time-dependent administration of anti-hypertensive agents, especially those acting on the renin-angiotensin system. (Cardiol J 2013; 20, 2: 112-120)”
“Purpose: To evaluate the in vitro performance of an electromagnetic navigation system (ENS) in aortic arch branch cannulation and describe its role for fenestrated endograft deployment.

Cytoprotection against the STS-induced apoptosis conferred by the

Cytoprotection against the STS-induced apoptosis conferred by the polymorphic HN5 variant, in which threonine in position 13 is replaced with isoleucine, is reduced compared to the wild type HN5 peptide. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Conservation of host signaling pathways and tissue physiology between Drosophila melanogaster and mammals allows for the modeling of human host-pathogen interactions in Drosophila. Here we present the use of genetically tractable Drosophila models of bacterial pathogenesis

to study infection with the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We describe and compare two protocols commonly used to infect Drosophila with P. aeruginosa: needle-pricking and injector-pumping. Selleck SN-38 Each model has relevance for examining host components and bacterial factors in host defense and virulence. Fly survival and bacterial proliferation within host flies can be assessed as a measure of host susceptibility and pathogen virulence potential. The profiles of host responses toward P. aeruginosa virulent and non-virulent strains can be determined, enabling the identification of interaction-specific genes that could potentially favor or limit the initiation and progression of infection. Both of the protocols presented herein may be adapted for the inoculation and study

of other microbial pathogens. P. aeruginosa cell preparation requires 24 h, fly inoculation 1 h, and fly survival and bacterial MK-0518 proliferation 1-4 d.”
“Secretory protein folding is monitored by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control mechanisms. Misfolded proteins are retained and targeted to ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathways. At their core are E3 ubiquitin ligases, which organize factors that recognize, ubiquitinate, and translocate substrates. Of these, we report that the Hrd1 complex manages three distinct substrate classes. A core complex is required for all classes and is sufficient for some

membrane proteins. The accessory factors Usa1p and Der1p adapt the complex to process luminal substrates. Their Ro-3306 cell line integration is sufficient to process molecules bearing glycan-independent degradation signals. The presence of Yos9p extends the substrate range by mediating the recognition of glycan-based degradation signals. This modular organization enables the Hrd1 complex to recognize topologically diverse substrates. The Hrd1 system does not directly evaluate the folding state of polypeptides. Instead, it does so indirectly, by recognizing specific embedded signals displayed upon misfolding.”
“I wanted to follow the correlation between level of basal metabolic rate (BMR) and maximum response to injection of noradrenaline (MMRNA) in two lines of laboratory mice subjected to divergent, artificial selection toward high BMR (HBMR) and low BMR (LBMR). HBMR animals had heavier visceral organs (heart, liver, kidney, intestine), but their regulatory NST (MMRNA-BMR) was lower and interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) lighter than in LBMR mice.