“Traumatic brain injury (TBI) activates several protein kinase signaling pathways in the hippocampus that are critical for hippocampal-dependent memory formation. In particular, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a protein kinase activated during and necessary for hippocampal-dependent learning, is transiently activated after TBI. However, TBI patients experience hippocampal-dependent cognitive deficits that occur for several months to years after the initial injury. Although
basal activation levels of ERK return to sham levels within hours after TBI, we hypothesized that activation of ERK may be impaired after TBI. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received either buy PSI-7977 sham surgery or moderate parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury. At 2, 8, or 12 weeks after surgery, the ipsilateral hippocampi of sham surgery ISRIB datasheet and TBI animals were sectioned into transverse slices. After 2 h of recovery in oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid, the hippocampal slices were stimulated with glutamate or KCl depolarization, then analyzed by western blotting for phosphorylated, activated ERK and one of its downstream effectors, the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). We found that activation of ERK (p < 0.05) and CREB (p < 0.05) after 30 s of glutamate stimulation or KCl depolarization was decreased in hippocampal slices from animals at 2, 8, or 12 weeks after TBI as
compared to sham animals. Basal levels of phosphorylated or total ERK were not significantly altered at 2, 8, or 12 weeks after TBI, although basal levels of phosphorylated CREB were decreased 12 weeks post-trauma. These results suggest that TBI results in chronic signaling deficits through the ERK-CREB pathway in the hippocampus. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective. To investigate whether the health and functioning of the Baby Boom generation are better or
worse than those of previous cohorts in middle age.
Methods. Trend analysis of vital statistics and self-reports from the National Health Interview Survey for the 40-59 population. Specific outcomes (years of data): mortality (1982-2004); poor www.selleck.cn/products/Ispinesib-mesilate(SB-715992).html or fair health (1982-2006); nine conditions (1997-2006); physical functional limitations (1997-2006); and needing help with personal care, routine needs, or either (1997-2006).
Results. In 2005, the mortality rate of 59-year-olds, the leading edge of the Baby Boom, was 31% lower than that of 59-year-olds in 1982 (8.3 vs. 12.1 per 1,000). There was a similar proportional decline in poor/fair health, but the decline reversed in the last decade. From 1997 to 2006, the prevalence of reports of four conditions increased significantly, but this trend may reflect improvements in diagnosis and treatment. Functional limitations and need for help with routine needs were stable, but the need for help with personal care, while quite low, increased.
Discussion. Trends varied by indicator, period, and age.