An aqueous solution of the copolymer above a critical concentrati

An aqueous solution of the copolymer above a critical concentration (2 wt%) experiences four distinct phases such as clear solutions, cloud solutions, gel and shrunken gel upon heating. Finally, the mechanism of the phase transitions was tentatively discussed based on the observations.”
“OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk of preterm birth (PTB) in relation to maternal psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy in Peruvian women.\n\nSTUDY DESIGN: This case-control study included 479 PTB cases and 480 term controls. In-person Pexidartinib order interviews were conducted to assess women’s depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms

using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Multi-variable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).\n\nRESULTS: Compared with women reporting no or minimal depressive

symptoms, the aOR (95% CI) for PTB associated with consecutive severity of depressive symptoms based on the PHQ-9 assessment method were as follows: mild, 2.22 (95% CI 1.64-3.00) and moderate-severe, 3.67 (95% CI 2.09-6.46). The corresponding aORs for normal, mild, and moderate-severe depressive symptoms based on the DASS-21 assessment were 1.00 (reference), 3.82 (95% CI 1.90-7.66), and 2.90 (95% CI 1.66-5.04), respectively. A positive gradient was observed for the odds of PTB with severity of anxiety (p(trend) < 0.001) and stress symptoms (p(trend) < 0.001).\n\nCONCLUSION: The odds of PTB increased Ricolinostat nmr in pregnant Peruvian women with psychiatric symptoms. Efforts to screen and treat affected women may modify risks of PTB and possibly other associated disorders. (J Reprod Med 2013;58:25-33)”
“For the accurate

description of aerodynamic characteristics for aircraft, a wavelet neural network (WNN) aerodynamic modeling method from flight data, based on improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm with information sharing strategy and velocity disturbance operator, is proposed. In improved PSO algorithm, an information sharing strategy is used to avoid the premature convergence as much BMN673 as possible; the velocity disturbance operator is adopted to jump out of this position once falling into the premature convergence. Simulations on lateral and longitudinal aerodynamic modeling for ATTAS (advanced technologies testing aircraft system) indicate that the proposed method can achieve the accuracy improvement of an order of magnitude compared with SPSO-WNN, and can converge to a satisfactory precision by only 60-120 iterations in contrast to SPSO-WNN with 6 times precocities in 200 times repetitive experiments using Morlet and Mexican hat wavelet functions. Furthermore, it is proved that the proposed method is feasible and effective for aerodynamic modeling from flight data.


“The lichen flora of southeast Alaska has been explored fo


“The lichen flora of southeast Alaska has been explored for over 100 years, but remains poorly known In the first survey of its kind from the region, we report 766 taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the Klondike Gold Rush National Historic Park Coming

from a park GSK923295 only 53 km(2) in size, this represents one of the largest numbers of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi per unit area ever reported and the largest number ever reported from any United States National Park of any size One lichen genus, four lichen species and one species of lichenicolous fungus are described as new to science Steineropsis alaskana gen et sp nov (Peltigerales), Coccotrema hahriae and Pertusaria mccroryae (both Pertusariales), Stereocaulon klondikense (Lecanorales) and Corticifraga scrobiculatae Liproxstatin-1 ic50 (Lecanoromycetes incertae sedis) The new combinations Coccotrema minutum and Nesolechia fusca are

made and Parmelia elongata is reduced to synonymy under Hypogymnia duplicata Seventy-five taxa could not be assigned a species name at this time and represent a pool of critical and/or potentially undescribed taxa Thirty-four taxa are new or confirmed for North America, including seventeen lichen taxa, one species of saprophytic Dothideomycetes, and sixteen species of lichenicolous fungi Five taxa of eastern North American distribution are reported for the west for the first time A total of 196 taxa are new for Alaska We report the presence of novel secondary chemical compounds in Bryoria, Cladonia, Hypogymnia and Pertusaria Based on a Chao analysis of single and two-time occurrences we estimate we have captured not more than 83% of the macrolichen and 64% of the microlichen flora, with the total flora likely exceeding 1000 taxa We provide an overview of the lichen inventories

with highest species number worldwide and discuss the Klondike in the context of broader patterns in lichen richness Global models of climate change in the coming century are unanimous in predicting greater temperature increases at higher latitudes than at low latitudes We hope that our data will lead to a reconsideration of the potential extent of biodiversity at high latitudes”
“Birds are capable of dexterous sensory-motor check details activities such as tool use. Reaching is a crucial component of tool use and is a vision-guided behavior in primates, in which arm movement is monitored online in a stable visual frame. However, vision-guided reaching in primates is enabled by anatomical separation of the head and arm; neck reaching in birds accompanies head movement, which produces unstable vision because the eye necessarily moves with the bill. This anatomical difference raises the question whether tool use in birds involves visuomotor mechanisms that are distinct from those in primates.

Two cultivars carrying the extreme resistance gene Ry(chc) were r

Two cultivars carrying the extreme resistance gene Ry(chc) were resistant to the infection with Eu-12Jp, which presents potential sources of resistance to PVYNTN. Eu-12Jp induced systemic mottle in potato cultivars Desiree and King Edward carrying resistance genes Ny and Nc, respectively, but induced a hypersensitive reaction in potato cultivar Maris Bard, with the Nz hypothetical resistance gene typical of the PVYZ strain group. Therefore, based on the

genome structure and the reaction of the potato N resistance genes, Eu-12Jp should be classified as PVYZ-NTN, as described for isolates from Idaho, USA recently. This is the first report of PVYZ-NTN in Japan and the sudden and increased occurrence of PVYNTN/PVYZ-NTN represents a potential risk of PTNRD developing and increases the significance of PVY in Japan.”
“Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a PD173074 mouse common nosocomial pathogen that relies on three cell-to-cell signals to regulate multiple virulence factors. The Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone) is one of these signals, and it is known to be important for P. aeruginosa pathogenesis. PQS is synthesized in a multistep reaction that condenses anthranilate and a fatty acid. In P. aeruginosa, anthranilate is produced via the kynurenine pathway and two separate anthranilate

synthases, TrpEG Z-DEVD-FMK molecular weight and PhnAB, the latter of which is important for PQS synthesis. Others have previously shown that a P. aeruginosa tryptophan auxotroph could grow on tryptophan-depleted medium with a frequency of 10(-5) to 10(-6). These revertants produced more pyocyanin and had increased levels of phnA transcript. In this study, we constructed similar tryptophan auxotroph revertants and found that the reversion resulted from a synonymous G-to-A nucleotide mutation within pqsC. This change resulted in increased pyocyanin and decreased PQS, along with an increase in the level of the pqsD, pqsE, and phnAB transcripts. Reporter fusion and reverse transcriptase PCR studies indicated that a novel transcript containing pqsD, pqsE, and phnAB occurs in these

revertants, and quantitative real-time PCR experiments suggested that the PD98059 same transcript appears in the wild-type strain under nutrient-limiting conditions. These results imply that the PQS biosynthetic operon can produce an internal transcript that increases anthranilate production and greatly elevates the expression of the PQS signal response protein PqsE. This suggests a novel mechanism to ensure the production of both anthranilate and PQS-controlled virulence factors.”
“Several studies have been conducted in recent years to evaluate the risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and polymorphisms of interleukin-10 (IL-10). However, the results were conflicting. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis of published case-control studies to assess this association.

In the system, both the predator and prey are divided into immatu

In the system, both the predator and prey are divided into immature individuals and mature individuals by two fixed ages. It is assumed that the immature predators cannot attack preys, and the case of the mature predators attacking the immature preys is also ignored. Based on Mawhin’s coincidence JPH203 cost degree, sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of two positive periodic solutions of the system. An example is presented to illustrate the feasibility of the main results.”
“Genome-wide gene expression analysis using DNA microarray has a great advantage to identify

the genes or specific molecular cascades involved in mental diseases, including major depression and suicide. In the present study, we conducted DNA microarray analysis of major depression using postmortem prefrontal cortices. The gene expression patterns were compared between the controls and subjects with major depression. As a result, 99 genes were listed as the differentially expressed genes www.selleckchem.com/products/MDV3100.html in major depression, of which several genes such as FGFR1, NCAM1, and CAMK2A were

of interest. Gene ontology analysis suggested an overrepresentation of genes implicated in the downregulation or inhibition of cell proliferation. The present results may support the hypothesis that major depression is associated with impaired cellular proliferation and plasticity. Comparison between the controls and suicide victims with major depression, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia was also conducted in the present study. Two genes, CAD and ATP1A3, were differentially expressed in the three comparisons in the same direction. Interestingly, these two genes were also included in the differentially expressed 99 genes in major depression. It may be worth investigating the genes in relation to suicide or major depression. (C) 2007 ICG-001 manufacturer Published by Elsevier Ireland

Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society.”
“Objective: Conflicting data exist regarding pseudoaneurysm screening (PSA-S), initial angioembolization (IE), deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis (DVT-P), and activity limitation after hemodynamically stable blunt splenic injury (BSI). To determine whether there was consensus regarding BSI management, the multi-institutional trial committee of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) approved a survey of member practice patterns regarding BSI management.\n\nMethods: Over 2 months, AAST members were invited to participate in an online survey. Practice patterns and attitudes surrounding PSA-S, IE, DVT-P, and activity limitation after BSI were determined.\n\nResults: The response rate was 37.5%. Practice patterns varied by injury grade. Observation only was thought appropriate for grades I (94.4%) and II (84.6%) injuries. For grades III to V injuries, fewer and fewer respondents felt observation only was appropriate.

(C) 2010 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“The introducti

(C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The introduction of hyperpolarized gases (He-3 and Xe-129) has opened the door to applications for which gaseous agents are uniquely suitedlung MRI. One of the pulmonary applications, diffusion MRI, relies on measuring Brownian motion of inhaled hyperpolarized gas atoms diffusing in lung airspaces. In this article we provide an overview of the theoretical ideas behind hyperpolarized gas diffusion MRI and the results obtained over the decade-long research. We describe a simple technique based on measuring gas apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and an advanced technique,

in vivo lung morphometry, that quantifies lung microstructure both in terms of Weibel parameters (acinar airways radii and alveolar depth) and standard metrics

(mean linear intercept, surface-to-volume ratio, and alveolar S63845 density) that are widely used by lung researchers but were previously Selleckchem Cyclopamine available only from invasive lung biopsy. This technique has the ability to provide unique three-dimensional tomographic information on lung microstructure from a less than 15 s MRI scan with results that are in good agreement with direct histological measurements. These safe and sensitive diffusion measurements improve our understanding of lung structure and functioning in health and disease, providing a platform for monitoring the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in clinical trials. Magn Reson Med 71:486-505, 2014. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Background Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease resulting in the targeted destruction of pancreatic beta-cells and permanent loss of insulin production. Proper glucose management results in Citarinostat solubility dmso better clinical outcomes for T1D and provides a strong rationale to identify non-invasive biomarkers indicative or predictive of glycemic control. Therefore, we investigated the association of salivary inflammation with HbA(1c) in a T1D cohort. Methods Unstimulated saliva was collected from 144 subjects

with T1D at the USF Diabetes Center. BMI, duration of diabetes, and HbA(1c) were recorded during clinical visit. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, -6, -8, -10, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, MMP-3, -8, and -9 were measured using multiplexing immunoassay analysis. To account for smoking status, salivary cotinine levels were also determined. Results Multiple linear (HbA(1c)) and logistic (self-reported gingival condition) regression analyses were performed to examine the relationships between the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) components and HbA(1c) and gingival condition (adjusted for age, duration of diabetes, BMI, and sex; model for HbA(1c) also adjusted for gingival condition and model for gingival condition also adjusted for HbA(1c)). PCA components 1 (MMP-8 and MMP-9) and 3 (TNF-alpha) were significantly associated with HbA(1c) (beta = 0.28 +/- 0.14, p = 0.

Enzymatic activities changed significantly depending on

t

Enzymatic activities changed significantly depending on

the enzyme source and the experimental treatment conditions investigated. The values of FOS obtained using inulinases from A. niger were 30.64% of GF2; 13.90% of GF3 and 2.88% of GF4 in the medium containing inulin as substrate. Results demonstrate that the use of compressed CO2 might be of technological importance as a preceding, preparation step, to improve enzyme activity, hence helping the development of new biotransformation processes. (C) 2013 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Although individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been diagnosed in India for over fifty years, virtually Z-VAD-FMK manufacturer nothing is known about the social circumstances of adults, their daily lives,

and their families. Where are adults with autism? How do they spend their time? Who are they with, and what Cyclosporin A cost are they doing all day? A mixed-method approach was used to obtain information on daily routines of 54 adults with ASD living in New Delhi, India, and about parent levels of stress associated with these routines during a study collected from January through June, 2013. Whether or not they attended a structured setting during the day (59% did so), adults engaged in some 20 activities both inside and outside IPI-145 clinical trial their home. Contrary to our expectations, most adults were not “hidden” and were out in public at least on occasion. Higher functioning adults were more likely to attend a structured setting, but parents described challenging behaviors, both adult and parent preference, and lack of options as reasons that adults stayed home. The amount of time adults spent outside their home was not associated with parent reported stress, but stress was significantly

higher for mothers who were employed. Most families described adaptation to caring for their adult children. A partnership with an Indian nongovernmental organization provided mechanisms to amplify our research findings, making them meaningful to our participants and others. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“It is known that neuroglutam (at 26 mg/kg) potentiates stereotypy that is induced by the agonist of postsynaptic dopamine receptors apomorphine (1 mg/kg), and suppresses catalepsy that is induced by the blocker of postsynaptic dopamine receptors haloperidol (1 mg/kg), which points to its stimulatory influence on dopaminergic neurotransmission.

(C) 2014 Elsevier B V All rights

reserved “
“Protei

(C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

reserved.”
“Protein transduction domains (PTDs), Selleck Birinapant which are cell-penetrating peptides, have been employed for delivery of various cargos. We previously showed that the N-terminal fragment of translationally controlled tumor protein functions as a PTD (TCTP-PTD) by as yet poorly understood mechanisms. In this study, we generated several green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged TCTP fusion proteins by conjugating a single PTD or tandem PTDs at the N-terminus, the C-terminus, and both termini and compared their transduction efficiencies in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to determine whether the protein click here transducing function of TCTP depends on the location or the number of PTD moieties in the TCTP molecule. Fluorimetric analysis and Western blotting assays revealed that TCTP-GFP fusion protein containing one or two TCTP-PTDs at its N-terminus showed more efficient cellular entry than either the C-terminal TCTP-PTD or TCTP-PTD with PTDs located at both the N- and C-terminals. This study

demonstrates the feasibility of transduction of TCTP target cells employing its TCTP-PTD by simple co-incubation with purified proteins. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Impaired cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were found in selected subgroups of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with long-term disease. Our study aimed JNK inhibitor cost to evaluate cerebral hemodynamics, systemic endothelial function and sympatho-vagal balance in a selected population of well-controlled T2DM patients with short-term disease and without cardiac autonomic neuropathy

(CAN).\n\nResearch Design and Methods: Twenty-six T2DM patients with short-term (4.40 +/- 4.80 years) and well-controlled (HbA1C = 6.71 +/- 1.29%) disease, without any complications, treated with diet and/or metformin, were consecutively recruited. Eighteen controls, comparable by sex and age, were enrolled also.\n\nResults: FMD and shear rate FMD were found to be reduced in T2DM subjects with short-term disease (8.5% SD 3.5 and 2.5 SD 1.3, respectively) compared to controls (15.4% SD 4.1 and 3.5 SD 1.4; p<.001 and p<.05). T2DM patients also displayed reduced VMR values than controls (39.4% SD 12.4 vs 51.7%, SD 15.5; p<.05). Sympatho-vagal balance was not different in T2DM patients compared to healthy subjects. FMD and shear rate FMD did not correlate with VMR in T2DM patients or in controls (p>.05).\n\nConclusions: In well-controlled T2DM patients with short-term disease cerebral hemodynamics and systemic endothelial function are altered while autonomic balance appeared to be preserved.

001) and breathing rate (P < 0 001) The fractions of aerosols

001) and breathing rate (P < 0.001). The fractions of aerosols penetrating through the faceseal leakage varied from 0.66 to 0.94. In conclusion, even for a well-fitting FFR respirator, most particle penetration occurs through faceseal leakage, which varies with breathing flow rate and particle size.”
“CONSPECTUS: In host-guest chemistry, a larger host Rocilinostat molecule selectively and noncovalently binds to a smaller guest molecule or ion. Early studies of host-guest chemistry focused on the recognition of spherical metal or ammonium ions by macrocyclic hosts, such as cyclic crown ethers. In these systems, preorganization enables their binding sites to cooperatively contact

and attract a guest. Although some open-chain crown ether analogues possess similar, but generally lower, binding affinities, the design of acyclic molecular recognition hosts has remained challenging. One of the most successful examples was rigid molecular tweezers, acyclic covalently bonded preorganized host molecules with open cavities that

bind tightly as they stiffen. Depending on the length of the atomic backbones, hydrogen bonding-driven aromatic amide foldamers can form open or closed cavities. Through rational design of the backbones and the introduction of added functional groups, researchers can regulate the shape and size of the cavity. The directionality of hydrogen bonding and the inherent rigidity of aromatic amide units www.selleckchem.com/products/ag-120-Ivosidenib.html allow researchers to predict both the shape and size of the cavity of an aromatic amide foldamer. Therefore, researchers can then design guest molecules with structure that matches the cavity shape, size, and binding sites of the foldamer host. In addition, because hydrogen bonds are dynamic, researchers can design structures

that can adapt to outside stimuli to produce responsive supramolecular architectures. In this Account, we discuss how aromatic amide and hydrazide foldamers induced by hydrogen bonding can produce responsive host-guest systems, based on research by our group and others. First we highlight the helical chirality induced as binding occurs in solution, which includes the induction of helicity by chiral guests in oligomeric and polymeric foldamers, the formation of diastereomeric complexes between chiral foldamer hosts selleck chemicals llc and guests, and the induction of helical chirality by chiral guests into inherently flexible backbones. In addition, molecular or ion-pair guests can produce supramolecular helical chirality in the organogel state. Such structures exhibit remarkable time-dependence and a “Sergeants and Soldiers” effect that are not observed for other two-component organogels that have been reported. We further illustrate that the reversible folding behavior of an aromatic amide foldamer segment can modulate the switching behavior of donor-acceptor interaction-based [2]rotaxanes.

A number of CYP2A6 polymorphisms have been associated with variat

A number of CYP2A6 polymorphisms have been associated with variations in enzyme activity in several ethnic populations. The CYP2A6*4C allele leads to deletion of the entire CYP2A6 gene, and is the main finding in patients

with reduced CYP2A6 enzymatic activity. Thus, the aim of our study was to evaluate the allele frequencies of CYP2A6 polymorphisms in a population with cancer of the digestive system. We developed a simple screening method, which combined TA cloning and direct-sequencing, to detect CYP2A6 genetic polymorphisms in Chinese patients with cancers of the digestive system. A total of 77 patients with various types of digestive system cancers were screened for CYP2A6 genetic polymorphisms. The allele frequencies of CYP2A6*1A, CYP2A6*1B and CYP2A6*4C in the 77 patients GDC-0068 research buy screened were 62,42 and 13%, respectively. Frequencies of the homozygous genotypes for CYP2A6*1A and CYP2A6*4C were 27 and 12%, respectively. As expected, patients that were determined to be homozygous for CYP2A6*4C exhibited the characteristic chemotherapy efficacy and toxicity profiles. The TA cloning-based direct sequencing method facilitated allele frequency and genotyping determination for CYP2A6*1A, 1B and 4C of cancer patients. The findings indicated that the population carries a high frequency of the CYP2A6*4C homozygous genotype. Thus, the reduced efficacy

VS-4718 of standard chemotherapy dosage in Chinese cancer patients may be explained by the lack of CYP2A6-mediated S-1 bioconversion to 5-FU.”
“This study identifies and semi-quantifies aroma volatiles in brewed green tea samples. The objectives of this study were to identify using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) paired with a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) the common volatile compounds that may be responsible for aroma/flavor of the brewed

liquor of a range of green tea samples from various countries as consumed and to determine if green teas from the same region have similarities in volatile composition when green tea samples are prepared for consumption. Twenty-four green find more tea samples from eight different countries were brewed as recommended for consumer brewing. The aroma volatiles were extracted by HS-SPME, separated on a gas chromatograph and identified using a mass spectrometer. Thirty-eight compounds were identified and the concentrations were semi-quantified. The concentrations were lower than those reported by other researchers, probably because this research examined headspace volatiles from brewed tea rather than solvent extraction of leaves. No relationship to country of origin was found, which indicates that other factors have a greater influence than country of origin on aroma.”
“Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) was first known as a virus receptor. Recently, it is also known to have tumor suppressive activity such as inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.

In addition to identifying major clades and their distribution, w

In addition to identifying major clades and their distribution, we explored the micro-diversity within the globally significant but uncultivated clade of marine stramenopiles (MAST-1) to examine the possibility of niche differentiation within the stratified water column. Our results strongly suggested that HFL PXD101 solubility dmso community composition was determined by water mass rather than

geographical location across the Beaufort Sea. Future work should focus on the biogeochemical and ecological repercussions of different HFL communities in the face of climate-driven changes to the physical structure of the Arctic Ocean.”
“Among the Entamoeba species that infect humans, Entamoeba histolytica causes diseases, Entamoeba dispar is a harmless commensal, Entamoeba moshkovskii seems to be a pathogen, and the pathogenicity of Entamoeba bangladeshi remains to be investigated. Species-specific detection needed for treatment decisions and for understanding the epidemiology and pathogenicity of these amebae. Antigen-based detection methods are needed for E dispar, E moshkovskii, and E bangladeshi; and molecular diagnostic test capable of detecting E histolytica, E dispar, E moshkovskii, and E bangladeshi simultaneously in clinical

samples. Next-generation sequencing of DNA from stool is needed to CH5183284 in vivo identify novel species of Entamoeba.”
“The production https://www.selleckchem.com/HIF.html of membrane proteins in cellular systems is besieged by several problems due to their hydrophobic nature which often causes misfolding, protein aggregation and cytotoxicity, resulting in poor yields of stable proteins. Cell-free expression has emerged as one of the most versatile alternatives for circumventing these obstacles by producing membrane proteins directly into designed hydrophobic environments. Efficient optimisation of expression and solubilisation conditions using a variety of detergents, membrane mimetics and lipids has yielded structurally and functionally intact membrane proteins,

with yields several fold above the levels possible from cell-based systems. Here we review recently developed techniques available to produce functional membrane proteins, and discuss amphipols, nanodisc and styrene maleic acid lipid particle (SMALP) technologies that can be exploited alongside cell-free expression of membrane proteins.”
“Lifelong treatment of mice with the effective mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 [10-(6'-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium] does not affect hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and more differentiated hematopoietic progenitors but significantly decelerates age-dependent changes in peripheral blood. During the first 13 months, SkQ1 (0.9 or 28.8 nmol/kg day) prevents age-dependent myeloid shift (increase in the proportion of granulocytes and decrease in the proportion of lymphocytes).