We also show that iron depletion strongly enhanced invasive activ

We also show that iron depletion strongly enhanced invasive activity of S. proteamaculans, Liproxstatin-1 chemical structure increasing activities of hemolysin ShlA and serralysin, but did not affect S. grimesii properties. These results show that the invasive activity of S. proteamaculans is maintained, along with protealysin, by hemolysin and serralysin. On the other hand, grimelysin is so far the only known invasion factor of S. grimesii.”
“Neuroglobin (Ngb), a neuron-specific

heme-binding protein that binds O-2, CO and NO reversibly, and promotes in vivo and in vitro cell survival after hypoxic and ischaemic insult Although the mechanisms of this neuroprotection remain unknown, Ngb might play an important role in counteracting the adverse effects of BIX 01294 cost ischaemic stroke and cerebral hypoxia. Several Ngb overexpressing mouse models have confirmed this hypothesis; however, these models were not yet exposed to in-depth behavioural characterisations. To investigate the potential changes in behaviour due to Ngb overexpression, heterozygous mice and wild type (WT) littermates were subjected to a series of cognitive and behavioural tests (i.e., the SHIRPA primary screening, the hidden-platform Morris water maze, passive avoidance learning, 47 h cage activity, open field exploration, a dark-light transition box, an accelerating rotarod, a stationary beam, a wire suspension task and a gait test) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. No significant behavioural

differences were found between WT and Ngb-overexpressing mice at three months old. However, one-year-old Ngb-overexpressing mice travelled more distance on the stationary beam compared with WT littermates. This result shows that the constitutive selleck compound overexpression of Ngb might counteract the endogenous decrease of Ngb in crucial brain regions such as the cerebellum, thereby counteracting age-induced neuromotor dysfunction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxygen Binding and Sensing Proteins. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Aim: Hemochromatosis is a common disorder of iron overload most commonly due to homozogosity for the HFE C282Y substitution. A workplace-screening program was

conducted in which over 11,000 individuals were screened for this mutation. A substudy of this project was to ascertain why people chose not to attend information and screening sessions offered in their workplace. Method: Staff were recruited by email, questionnaires in common areas, and direct approach. A purpose-designed questionnaire sought the reasons for not attending information and screening sessions. Results: The nonattender questionnaire was distributed at 24 workplaces and completed by 872 individuals. The most common reason for not attending sessions, accounting for 70.1%, was practical (e.g., unaware of session, too busy, or unavailable). Other relatively common reasons were that the individual had low iron levels or were a blood donor (14.

Selected factors with univariate statistical significance (P <

Selected factors with univariate statistical significance (P < .05) were then analyzed with multivariate logistic regression.\n\nResults: Thirty-one patients developed pneumonia (28%). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12) and

methicillin-sensitive S aureus (n = 7) were the most common pathogenic bacteria. Chronic lung disease, neurological status at admission as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and hemorrhagic transformation were the independent risk factors contributing to VAP. Worsening oxygenation index (arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen) and proton pump inhibitor use for ulcer prophylaxis were other potentially important factors.”
“Many local vegetable materials are under-exploited because of inadequate scientific knowledge PARP inhibitor of their nutritional potentials. For this reason, the nutritional, phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the acetone, methanol and water extracts of the

leaves of Sonchus asper and Sonchus oleraceus were investigated. AR-13324 purchase The proximate analysis showed that the plants contained appreciable percentage of moisture content, ash content, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and carbohydrate. The plants are also rich in minerals, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, total phenols and low levels of saponins, phytate and alkaloids. The extracts of the 2 plants also showed strong antioxidant antibacterial properties.”
“Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is an effective therapy for ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the brain, small intestine, testes and liver. However,

the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of HBO therapy remain undetermined. In the current study, the hypothesis that preconditioning rats with HBO protects grafted skin flaps against subsequent I/R injury was investigated. In addition, the molecular mechanisms underlying HBO CH5183284 molecular weight therapy were characterized by analyzing the roles of the following important inflammatory factors: High mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B). A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into the following five groups: (i) Sham surgery (SH); (ii) ischemia followed by reperfusion 3 days following surgery (I/R3d); (iii) ischemia followed by reperfusion 5 days following surgery (I/R5d); (iv) HBO preconditioning (HBO-PC) and ischemia followed by reperfusion 3 days following surgery (HBO-PC+3d); and (v) HBO-PC and ischemia followed by reperfusion 5 days following surgery (HBO-PC+5d). For the surgical procedure, all pedicled skin flaps were first measured and elevated (9×6 cm). The feeding vessels of the skin flaps were subsequently clamped for 3 h and released to restore blood flow. The rats in the HBO-PC+3d and HBO-PC+5d groups received 1 h HBO for 3 and 5 consecutive days, respectively, prior to surgery.

Conclusion: These results strongly support the notion that Ga-68-

Conclusion: These results strongly support the notion that Ga-68-DO3A-exendin-4 uptake in the pancreas is mediated by specific receptor binding. In addition, pancreatic uptake was decreased by selective destruction of beta-cells. This result suggests that GLP-1R can be quantified in vivo, which has major implications for the prospect of imaging of native beta-cells.”
“The senescence-accelerated GSK1838705A mouse mouse (SAM)

is a murine model of aging that was developed from the AKR/J strain. We examined whether there are behavioral differences among SAM prone 6 (SAMP6; an established model of senile osteoporosis), SAM resistant 1 (SAMR1), and AKR/J, using a modified SmithKline/Harwell/Imperial College/Royal Hospital/Phenotype Assessment (SHIRPA) procedure and pharmacological tests. The modified click here SHIRPA, which is suitable for rapid and comprehensive phenotyping of transgenic and gene-targeted

mice, revealed increased rearing, spontaneous activity, locomotor activity, tail elevation, head bobbing, and tail rattling behaviors of SAMP6 compared with SAMR1 and AKR/J. These phenotypes are consistent with alteration of the dopamine system in SAMP6. Adopting a pharmacological approach to examine dopamine signaling, we evaluated the locomotor activity of the mice after intraperitoneal administration of apomorphine, a subtype non-selective dopamine receptor agonist. Apomorphine at 1 mg/kg significantly increased the EGFR inhibitor locomotor activity of SAMP6, but not SAMR1 or AKR/J. At 3 mg/kg, apomorphine significantly increased the locomotor activities of all three strains, but the increase in SAMP6 was still significantly greater than that in SAMR7 or AKR/J. These results indicate increased sensitivity of the dopamine receptor signaling pathway in SAMP6. Thus, alteration of dopamine receptor signal transduction appears to be one of the underlying mechanisms of the increased locomotor activity of SAMP6. The combination of modified SHIRPA and examination of drug threshold dose differences between strains appears to be an effective

approach to extend the applicability of existing mouse models. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Although the growth of bacteria has been studied for more than a century, it is only in recent decades that surface-associated growth has received attention. In addition to the well-characterized biofilm and swarming lifestyles, bacteria can also develop as micro-colonies supported by structured environments in both food products and the GI tract. This immobilized mode of growth has not been widely studied. To develop our understanding of the effects of immobilization upon a food-borne bacterial pathogen, we used the IFR Gel Cassette model. The transcriptional programme and metabolomic profile of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST4/74 were compared during planktonic and immobilized growth, and a number of immobilization-specific characteristics were identified. Immobilized S.

“Purpose: The fluid-dynamic technique is characterized by

“Purpose: The fluid-dynamic technique is characterized by the hydraulic detachment of the mucosa and simultaneous filling of the sub-Schneiderian space, Pevonedistat price with a graft material of paste-like consistency. Materials and Methods: Authors performed 13 future site developments, on as many patients (4 men; 9 women; age 49.46 +/- 12.44 years), using

a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite dispersed in an aqueous matrix as graft material. In the second stage, performed at 5.96 +/- 1.72 months, 13 implants were placed after harvesting bone biopsies from the regenerated sites. The above samples were subjected to histological and histomorphometric analysis. The histomorphometric results were then compared with the bone density, measured in Hounsfield units. Results: The average percentage of vital bone

was of 29.08% +/- 14.7%, whereas the bone marrow and graft material were 59.75% +/- 11.19% and 11.16% +/- 10.88%, respectively. Liproxstatin-1 cost The percentage of vital bone has a significant correlation with the bone density of the recipient site (P = 0.003117). In contrast, the bone marrow (P = 0.08692) and the graft (P = 0.0799) do not show a significant correlation with this parameter. Conclusions: The results suggest the validity of the method in the regeneration of bone volume in the subantral region.”
“Background: Methylmalonic aciduria combined with homocystinuria (MMA-HC) is the biochemical trait of a metabolic disorder resulting from impaired conversion of dietary cobalamin (cbl, or vitamin B(12)) to its two metabolically active forms. Effects on urinary purine and pyrimidine levels have not been described for this condition.\n\nMethods: HKI-272 mouse Urine samples were collected from three patients with methylmalonic aciduria combined with homocystinuria and from 70 healthy subjects. Urinary purine and pyrimidine levels were quantitated by the use of LC/UV-Vis and LC/ESI/MS.\n\nResults: Higher urine

levels of pyrimidines were detected with both methods in patients compared to controls.\n\nConclusion: Methylmalonic aciduria with homocystinuria is due to deficiency of the enzyme, cobalamin reductase. The enzyme defect leads to altered hepatic metabolism, which appears to modify circulating pyrimidine levels. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A large number of studies have analyzed social and sexual interactions between rodents in relation to neural activity. Computerized video analysis has been successfully used to detect numerous behaviors quickly and objectively; however, to date only 2D video recording has been used, which cannot determine the 3D locations of animals and encounters difficulties in tracking animals when they are overlapping, e. g., when mounting. To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel 3D video analysis system for examining social and sexual interactions in rats.

The results demonstrated that the restoration of oral health was

The results demonstrated that the restoration of oral health was associated with an improvement in patients’ OHRQoL. According to the demographical

and T0 phase clinical status, the treatment was more effective in the respect of OHIP-49-H score improvement among females (than among males), among younger (than among more aged), and among patients with more serious CPI assessed at T0. The type of prosthetic interventions did not exert a significant effect on total OHIP-49-H score, suggesting that the improvement in OHRQoL is independent from the type of denture applied.”
“Background\n\nNo longitudinal study has yet examined the association between substance use and brain volume changes in a population at high risk of schizophrenia.\n\nAims\n\nTo

examine the effects learn more of cannabis on longitudinal thalamus and amygdala-hippocampal complex volumes within a population at high risk of schizophrenia.\n\nMethod\n\nMagnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from individuals at high genetic risk of schizophrenia at the point of entry to the Edinburgh High-Risk Study (EHRS) and approximately 2 years later. Differential thalamic and amygdala-hippocampal complex volume change in high-risk individuals exposed (n = 25) and not exposed AZD9291 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor (n = 32) to cannabis in the intervening period was investigated using repeated-measures analysis of variance.\n\nResults\n\nCannabis exposure was

associated with bilateral thalamic volume loss. This effect was significant on the left (F=4.47, P=0.04) and highly significant on the right (F=7.66, P=0.008). These MK-1775 results remained significant when individuals using other illicit drugs were removed from the analysis.\n\nConclusions\n\nThese are the first longitudinal data to demonstrate an association between thalamic volume loss and exposure to cannabis in currently unaffected people at familial high risk of developing schizophrenia. This observation may be important in understanding the link between cannabis exposure and the subsequent development of schizophrenia.”
“Targeted quantification of DNA methylation allows for interrogation of the most informative loci across many samples quickly and cost-effectively. Here we report improved bisulfite padlock probes (BSPPs) with a design algorithm to generate efficient padlock probes, a library-free protocol that dramatically reduces sample-preparation cost and time and is compatible with automation, and an efficient bioinformatics pipeline to accurately obtain both methylation levels and genotypes from sequencing of bisulfite-converted DNA.”
“Polarizers capable of producing linearly polarized beams with axial (radial and azimuthal) symmetry have been fabricated with the aid of a dichroic liquid crystal.

Using a Langendorff rat heart model, mitochondrial bioenergetics

Using a Langendorff rat heart model, mitochondrial bioenergetics and protein SBE-β-CD levels were assessed at different times of ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion. Mitochondrial and nuclear gene expression (super array

analysis) and mitochondrial DNA levels were evaluated after late ischemia. Ischemia induced progressive and marked decreases in complex I, III, and V activities. Reperfusion (15, 30, and 60 min) after 45 min of ischemia had little further effect on enzyme activities or respiration. Super array analysis after 45 min ischemia revealed increased levels of the proteins with more pronounced increases in the corresponding mRNAs. Expression of mitochondrial and nuclear genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation increased after 45 min of ischemia but not after reperfusion. Myocardial ischemia induces mitochondrial TPCA-1 molecular weight dysfunction and differential but coordinated expression of nuclear and mitochondrial genes in a time-dependent manner. Our observations are pertinent to the search for molecular stimuli that generate mitochondrial defects and alter mitochondrial and nuclear transcriptional responses that may impact ischemic preconditioning and cardioprotection.”

molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is essential for the folding stability, intracellular disposition and proteolytic turnover of many of the key regulators of cell growth, differentiation and survival. These essential functions are used by the cells during the oncogenesis process to allow the tumor transformation

and facilitate the rapid somatic evolution. Inhibition of HSP90 would provide combinatorial blockade of a range of oncogenic pathways, antagonizing many of the hallmark traits of cancer. Several HSP90 inhibitors are currently under clinical trial investigation for the treatment of cancer. This review summarizes the current state and progress achieved in the development of HSP90 inhibitors targeting the N-terminal ATP pocket, C-terminal domain, different compartmentalized isoforms, and protein (co-chaperones and/or client proteins)/HSP90 interactions. In the context of drug discovery, the most relevant patents which appeared recently in the literature are discussed as well.”
“This study DZNeP explored the molecular mechanisms underlying the time-dependent autophagy and apoptosis induced by nutrient depletion in human multiple myeloma cell line RPMI8226 cells. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR were used to evaluate the transcriptional levels of Deptor, JNK1, JNK2, JNK3, Raf-1, p53, p21 and NF kappa B1 at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 h after nutrient depletion in RPMI8226 cells. We found that transcriptional levels of Deptor were increased time-dependently at 0, 6, 12 and 18 h, and then decreased. Its alternation was consistent with autophagy.

However, no study has investigated their at-sea behavioural patte

However, no study has investigated their at-sea behavioural patterns associated with arrival times. To explore this question, we learn more tracked breeding streaked shearwaters, Calonectris leucomelas, with GPS data loggers, which continuously recorded fine-scale movement paths during their trips. Shearwaters adjusted the onset of their homeward journeys according to wide-ranging distances between their chosen foraging areas and breeding colonies, leaving earlier from further locations. The

start time of homing was pushed forward correlating with the increased travel time expected from their homeward distance and average movement speed. This resulted in arrivals at the colony concentrated within

a few hours after sunset independent of the distances. To our knowledge, similar temporal tuning of homing trips has not been reported previously. The strong correlation between the timing and distance of homeward journeys implies this behaviour is ecologically important. Further experiments will help clarify its generality in the animal kingdom as well as proximate mechanism(s) and ultimate function( s). (C) 2011 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Megalocytivirus is an important fish pathogen with a broad Selleckchem YH25448 host range that includes turbot. In this study, proteomic analysis was conducted to examine turbot proteins modulated in expression by megalocytivirus infection. Thirty five proteins from spleen were identified to be differentially

expressed at 2 days post-viral infection (dpi) and 7 dpi. Three upregulated proteins, i.e. heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), Mx protein, and natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF), were further analyzed find more for potential antiviral effect. For this purpose, turbot were administered separately with the plasmids pHsp70, pMx, and pNKEF, which express Hsp70, Mx, and NKEF respectively, before megalocytivirus infection. Viral dissemination and propagation in spleen were subsequently determined. The results showed that the viral loads in fish administered with pNKEF were significantly reduced. To examine the potential of Hsp70, Mx, and NKEF as immunological adjuvant, turbot were immunized with a DNA vaccine in the presence of pHsp70, pMx, or pNKEF. Subsequent analysis showed that the presence of pNKEF and pHsp70, but not pMx, significantly reduced viral infection and enhanced fish survival. Taken together, these results indicate that NKEF exhibits antiviral property against megalocytivirus, and that both NKEF and Hsp70 may be used in DNA vaccine-based control of megalocytivirus infection. Biological significance This study provides the first proteomic picture of turbot in response to megalocytivirus infection.

005) Mouse droppings were not associated with detection of Mus m

005). Mouse droppings were not associated with detection of Mus m1. Conclusion. – The prevalence of mouse allergen was substantial but their levels were most often very low. Mus m1 does not appear a major risk factor for asthma morbidity in PACA region. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.”
“The radiosensitizing effects of naturally occurring triterpenes were investigated

in human lung cancer cells. Several quinone methide-containing triterpenes (QMTs) enhanced the cytotoxic effect of Autophagy inhibitor ic50 ionizing radiation (IR) and of these QMTs, celastrol (CE) had the greatest enhancing effect on IR-induced cell death in vitro. Additionally, the quinone methide moiety of CE was shown to be essential for CE-mediated radiosensitization; in contrast, dihydrocelastrol (DHCE), does not contain this moiety. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by IR was augmented in combination with CE, which was responsible for CE-mediated radiosensitization. CE induced the thiol reactivity and inhibited the activities of antioxidant molecules, such as thioredoxin reductase and glutathione. In vivo, nude mouse xenografting data also revealed that tumor growth delay was greater in mice treated with CE plus IR, compared with those treated with CE or IR alone. When DHCE, instead

selleck compound of CE, was combined with IR, tumor growth delay was similar to that in IR alone-treated mice. These results demonstrate that CE synergistically enhances the effects of IR and suggest the novel anticancer therapeutic use of CE in combination with radiation therapy. (C) 2011 Elsevier DZNeP mw Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives Because a newly described salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) network is responsible for increases in active cell sodium transport in response to

elevated intracellular sodium, we hypothesized that this network could mediate the effects of the mutant (hypertensive) form of alpha-adducin on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity.\n\nMethods Studies were performed in normotensive and hypertensive Milan rats and in a cell line of proximal tubule origin expressing transiently variants of alpha-adducin (human G460W/S586C;rat F316Y) that are associated with elevated blood pressure and result in increased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity was determined as ouabain-sensitive rubidium transport.\n\nResults SIK1 activity (T182 phosphorylation) was significantly elevated in renal proximal tubule cells from Milan hypertensive rats (carrying a alpha-adducin mutation) when compared with normotensive controls. Similarly, SIK1 activity (T182 phosphorylation) was elevated in a normal renal proximal tubule cell line when transfected with the alpha-adducin variant carrying the human hypertensive mutation. Blocking the SIK1 network using negative mutants as well as different stages of its activation pathway prevented the effects induced by the hypertensive alpha-adducin.

In patients with outcomes of ankle sprain, MR findings were abnor

In patients with outcomes of ankle sprain, MR findings were abnormal retinacula thickness, signal intensity, and full-thickness gap. Discussion: The retinacula are not static structures for joint stabilisation, like the ligaments,

but a specialisation of the fascia for local spatial proprioception of the movements of foot and ankle. Their anatomical variations and accessory buy EPZ5676 bundles may be viewed as morphological evidence of the integrative role of the fascial system in peripheral control of articular motility. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) control in rural China is of high priority in health policy making.\n\nOBJECTIVE : To investigate treatment success among rural TB patients and the determinants of patient and case management and to explore the current status of DOTS implementation in rural China.\n\nMETHODS: A patient-based study was conducted in six counties of Shandong Province, China. Study sites were selected by multi-stage random sampling. Subjects were rural smear-positive pulmonary TB patients registered with the county TB dispensaries at study sites who completed treatment during

the period October 2006 to September 2007.\n\nRESULTS: This study observed a success rate of 74.5% among 501 participants. The cure rate, of 50.5%, was much lower than the national level. There was a difference in treatment success rates across counties. Factors independently affecting treatment success were patient selleck kinase inhibitor income, study site, and home visits and supervision by town and village YH25448 inhibitor health workers.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Enhancing financial resources for TB control and effective involvement of human resources are crucial to achieving success with the DOTS strategy in rural China.”
“Citric acid (CA) is the most important commercial product which is produced by using various

sugar substrates in the terrestrial environment. The present study made an attempt to produce citric acid by the fungal strain Aspergillus niger from red seaweed Gelidiella acerosa is the best alternative to sugar substrate in the marine environment. In this study three types of production media were prepared including control (sucrose) by following standard fermentation conditions. The acid production was indicated by the reduction of pH levels. The control medium gave the highest yield of 80 g/l at pH 1.5 and the medium containing crude seaweed powder and other compositions gave the yield of 30 g/l at pH 3.5 whereas the medium containing crude seaweed and 10% sucrose gave the yield of 50 g/l at pH 3.0. When calculating the benefit cost ratio, crude seaweed powder and 10% sucrose yielded 50 g of citric acid at the lower cost of Rs. 35, whereas the other two media gave the yield of 80 and 30 g respectively with the cost of Rs. 77 and 28. In economic point of view, the medium containing seaweed and 10% sucrose showed more benefit with lower cost.”
“A series of methoxybenzoates Ln(MOBA)(3).

“Staphylococcus (S ) aureus is an important mastitis causi

“Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is an important mastitis causing pathogen in dairy cows worldwide. The aim of this controlled and randomized study was to analyze the effects of an antibiotic treatment on chronic subclinical S. aureus mastitis during lactation. The study was GS-9973 purchase conducted between July 2011 and December 2011 in Northern Germany including 134 udder quarters (i. e. 103 dairy cows) infected with S. aureus. The animals were randomly divided into two groups (control and treatment group). Quarter foremilk duplicate samples were taken on days 0, 7, 32 and 39 from each infected udder quarter for

microbiological analysis and somatic cell count determination.\n\nTreatment consisted of cephalexin (200 mg intramammarily 5 times every 12 h) plus marbofloxacine (2 mg/kg BM subcutaneously 3 times every 24 h). “Pathogen elimination” was assessed as the status, when no S. aureus was isolated from the quarter samples of days 32 and 39. “Cure” was defined

as the status, when in addition to pathogen elimination the somatic cell count of the quarter in both milk samples was below 100 000/ml. Animals of the treatment group showed a pathogen elimination rate of 35.9% and a cure rate of 21.9%. The rates for the control group were 21.4% and 8.6%, resp. The differences between groups were statistically significant. These results indicate that pathogen elimination and cure rates of chronic subclinical S. aureus mastitis are low after an intramammary cephalexin and subcutaneous marbofloxacine Selleckchem AC220 treatment, but still significantly better than without any antibiotic treatment.”
“Increased dietary ratios of u6/u3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD), but epidemiologic data are limited. We investigated whether variants of genes that control polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism (CYP4F3, FADS1, and FADS2), along with the dietary ratio of

u6/u3, confers susceptibility to CD. Based on data from selleck chemical 182 children newly diagnosed with CD and 250 controls, we found that children who consumed a higher dietary ratio of u6/u3 were susceptible for CD if they were also carriers of specific variants of CYP4F3 and FADS2 genes. Our findings implicate diet-gene interactions in the pathogenesis of CD.”
“One of the challenges presented by Candida infections is that many of the isolates encountered in the clinic produce biofilms, which can decrease these pathogens’ susceptibilities to standard-of-care antibiotic therapies. Inhibitors of fungal biofilm formation offer a potential solution to counteracting some of the problems associated with Candida infections. A screening campaign utilizing samples from our fungal extract library revealed that a Bionectria ochroleuca isolate cultured on Cheerios breakfast cereal produced metabolites that blocked the in vitro formation of Candida albicans biofilms.