“The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro perform

“The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro performance of a nebulized nanoemulsion formulation which had been optimised previously. To do so, a transparent nanoemulsion preparation containing 1.5 mg/ml of budesonide was prepared and diluted to achieve concentrations of 250 and 500 mu g/ml budesonide. The in vitro characteristics of the diluted nanoemulsions were then compared with the

commercially available suspension of budesonide (Pulmicort Respules (R)) Selleckchem GSK1838705A when nebulized using a jet and a vibrating mesh nebulizer. A smaller MMAD with improved aerosol output was observed in the nanoemulsion preparations compared with the corresponding suspension formulations indicating an improved in vitro performance for the nanoemulsion-based preparations.”
“Study Design. Retrospective clinical study for patients receiving multilevel en-bloc spondylectomy resection for sarcomas

and solitary metastases of the thoracolumbar spine.

Objective. Assess the clinical and radiologic outcome after multilevel en-bloc spondylectomy and reconstruction.

Summary of Background Data. Monolevel en-bloc spondylectomies have proven their oncosurgical effectiveness while reports on multilevel resections for extracompartmental tumor localizations are rare.

Methods. Patients treated by multilevel see more en-bloc spondylectomy and restoration with a carbon composite vertebral body replacement system were investigated. Patient charts, and clinical follow-up investigations were analyzed for histopathological tumor origin, preoperative symptoms, surgical peri-and postoperative data, applied adjuvant therapies, as well as the course of disease. Solitary metastases time until occurrence and prognostic scores were evaluated (Tomita/Tokuhashi Score). CT-scans were performed and analyzed at follow up. Oncological status was evaluated including local recurrence rates, cumulative disease specific, and metastases-free survival.

Results. Multilevel (2-5 segments) en-bloc spondylectomy of the thoracolumbar spine was performed in 20 patients (15 sarcomas and 5 solitary spinal metastases 9 male/11 female, mean age selleck screening library at surgery: 54 +/- 15 years.). Wide and marginal surgical margins were

achieved in 7 and 13 patients, respectively. Mean follow-up period was 25.0 (9-53) months. Thirteen patients received adjuvant therapy. No implant breakage or loosening was observed. Local recurrence occurred in one patient. Thirteen of the 18 surviving patients showed no evidence of the disease, two died of systemic disease.

Conclusion. Multilevel en-bloc spondylectomy offers a radical resection option for extracompartmental tumor involvement. It provides oncologically adequate resection margins with low local recurrence. However, the procedures are complex; the patient’s stress is high and metastatic disease developed in one-third of patients. A judicious patient selection and a realistic feasibility evaluation must precede the decision for surgery.

A total of 242 838 mammograms (171 191 screen film [screen-film m

A total of 242 838 mammograms (171 191 screen film [screen-film mammography group] and 71 647 digital [digital mammography group]) obtained in 103 613 women aged 45-69 years were included. False-positive results for any additional procedure and for invasive procedures, the breast cancer rate, and the positive predictive value in each group were compared by using Pearson chi(2) test. The effect of the mammographic technology used (screen-film or digital) on the false-positive results and cancer detection risk was evaluated with multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted according to women’s and the

screening program’s characteristics and time trends.

Results: The false-positive rate was higher for screen-film than for digital mammography (7.6% and 5.7%, respectively; P < .001). False-positive results after an invasive procedure were significantly higher for screen-film than for digital mammography (1.9% and 0.7%, respectively; CT99021 ic50 P < .001). No significant differences Entinostat chemical structure were observed in the overall cancer detection rate between the two groups (0.45% and 0.43% in the screen-film and digital mammography groups, respectively; P = .59). The adjusted risk of a false-positive result was higher

for screen-film than for digital mammography (odds ratio = 1.32). The adjusted risk was also lower for the digital mammography group when time trends were taken into account.

Conclusion: The lower false-positive risk with use of digital mammography should be taken into account when balancing the risks and benefits of breast cancer screening. (C)RSNA, 2011″
“Study Design. A prospective single blinded placebo controlled study was conducted.

Objective. To assess the effectiveness of spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain (LBP) and to determine the effectiveness of maintenance SMT in long-term reduction of pain and disability levels associated with chronic low back conditions after an initial phase of treatments.

Summary of Background Data. SMT is a common treatment option for LBP. Numerous clinical trials have attempted to

evaluate its effectiveness for different subgroups of acute and chronic LBP but the efficacy of maintenance SMT in chronic nonspecific LBP has not been studied.

Methods. Torin 2 research buy Sixty patients, with chronic, nonspecific LBP lasting at least 6 months, were randomized to receive either (1) 12 treatments of sham SMT over a 1-month period, (2) 12 treatments, consisting of SMT over a 1-month period, but no treatments for the subsequent 9 months, or (3) 12 treatments over a 1-month period, along with “”maintenance spinal manipulation”" every 2 weeks for the following 9 months. To determine any difference among therapies, we measured pain and disability scores, generic health status, and back-specific patient satisfaction at baseline and at 1-, 4-, 7-, and 10-month intervals.


These preliminary and shor-term data demonstrate that factors ass

These preliminary and shor-term data demonstrate that factors associated with T2DM in kidney donors are similar to those in the general population and donors this website screened carefully at the time of donation do not appear to have an acceleration of diabetic kidney disease.”
“Stress response and adaptation are important physiological mechanisms in plants. As plants are not able to avoid stressful environments by moving away, as animals, they have developed diverse mechanisms to respond to stressful situations. One of the genes involved in these mechanisms is NRP (Asparagine-rich protein or N-rich protein). In this study, NRP expression, protein localization

and nip knockout plants were investigated for further understanding of NRP function. NaCl-induced salt stress, oxidative stress (ozone exposure) and mechanical perturbation (touch treatment) were used to induce abiotic stress. NRP expression was up-regulated in the early phase of stress response to all three elicitors. Stressed nrp knockout seedlings revealed a more pronounced growth inhibition compared to wildtype (salt and osmotic stress). Seedlings showed NRP-GFP expression in the apical meristem, leaf veins, central cylinder, root hair zone and root

tip. Analyses of NRP-GFP localization in root cells and protoplasts revealed cytosolic distribution under non-stress conditions and translocation of NRP GFP to mitochondria due to stress response. Summarizing, our findings point to a contribution of NRP in signal transduction of the initial phase of general stress response click here in Arabidopsis thaliana. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“P>ARF-GTPases are important proteins that control membrane trafficking events. Their activity is largely influenced by the interplay between guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), which facilitate the activation or inactivation of ARF-GTPases, respectively. There are 15 predicted proteins that contain an Ricolinostat mw ARF-GAP domain within the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, and these are classified as ARF-GAP domain (AGD) proteins.

The function and subcellular distribution of AGDs, including the ability to activate ARF-GTPases in vivo, that remain largely uncharacterized to date. Here we show that AGD5 is localised to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), where it co-localises with ARF1, a crucial GTPase that is involved in membrane trafficking and which was previously shown to be distributed on Golgi and post-Golgi structures of unknown nature. Taking advantage of the in vivo AGD5-ARF1 interaction at the TGN, we show that mutation of an arginine residue that is critical for ARF-GAP activity of AGD5 leads to longer residence of ARF1 on the membranes, as expected if GTP hydrolysis on ARF1 was impaired due to a defective GAP. Our results establish the nature of the post-Golgi compartments in which ARF1 localises, as well as identifying the role of AGD5 in vivo as a TGN-localised GAP.

In all CsBr: Eu(2+) samples studied, intense PSL emission arises

In all CsBr: Eu(2+) samples studied, intense PSL emission arises only following room temperature hydration in an atmosphere of 99% relative humidity, and it is concluded that the presence

of water molecules is essential for the PSL in CsBr:Eu(2+). In CsBr:Eu(2+), O(2-) this enhancement effect of PSL intensity is reduced as the oxygen concentration increases above 0.05 mol% due to competition between the Eu(2+) and O(2-) luminescence centers. It was found that the effects of hydration can be partially reversed following exposure to a vacuum while the material is rendered completely https://www.selleckchem.com/products/lazertinib-yh25448-gns-1480.html PSL inactive following thermal annealing up to 600 degrees C which is caused by agglomeration of the highly mobile Eu(2+) ions and subsequent loss of Screening Library chemical structure Eu(2+) luminescence. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3569745]“
“Cell migration in the absence of external cues is well described by a correlated random walk. Most single cells move by extending protrusions called pseudopodia.

To deduce how cells walk, we have analyzed the formation of pseudopodia by Dictyostelium cells. We have observed that the formation of pseudopodia is highly ordered with two types of pseudopodia: First, de novo formation of pseudopodia at random positions on the cell body, and therefore in random directions. Second, pseudopod splitting near the tip of the current pseudopod in alternating right/left directions, leading

to a persistent zig-zag trajectory. Here we analyzed the probability frequency distributions of the angles between pseudopodia and used this information to design a stochastic model for cell movement. Monte Carlo simulations show that the critical PRT062607 price elements are the ratio of persistent splitting pseudopodia relative to random de novo pseudopodia, the Left/Right alternation, the angle between pseudopodia and the variance of this angle. Experiments confirm predictions of the model, showing reduced persistence in mutants that are defective in pseudopod splitting and in mutants with an irregular cell surface.”
“The mechanical behavior of cellular materials appears to have, for both open and closed cells, similar characteristics. The compressive stress-strain diagram contains a nearly elastic regime; this leads to a limit load, followed by a plateau extending to a strain of about 50% on average. All of the main features of this curve are related to the material’s microstructure. In this study, taking into account the complex deformation mechanisms occurring in a cellular material under external loading, we introduced a statistical micromechanics model. The geometry of our analysis was based on a previous study, where the deformation of the individual struts was connected to the macroscopic deformation tensor.

OBJECTIVE: To assess barriers to implementation of TB-HIV collabo

OBJECTIVE: To assess barriers to implementation of TB-HIV collaborative services in five districts in Uganda.

DESIGN: In this qualitative study, focus groups and key informant and in-depth interviews were conducted for patients (HIV, TB), health providers and community members. TB registers were also assessed for data on use of TB-HIV collaborative services.

RESULTS: Of 333 adult TB

patients registered between July and September 2006, 185 (56%) were tested for HIV, of whom 1.34 were HIV-co-infected. Of these, 52% were on cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT), 12% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and CPT, while 36% had not received any HIV service. Health system barriers identified included poor TB-HIV planning, coordination and leadership, P5091 Ubiquitin inhibitor inadequate dissemination of policy, inadequate provider knowledge, limited TB-HIV interclinic referral, poor service integration and recording, logistical shortages, high costs of services and provider shortages amidst high patient loads.

CONCLUSION: Implementation and utilisation of collaborative TB-HIV services remains suboptimal. The barriers identified

highlight the need for TB and HIV programmes to support districts CH5424802 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor to plan, coordinate and invest resources in TB-HIV collaborative services, especially in policy dissemination, training health providers, integration of TB-HIV services, logistical management and monitoring.”
“There is strong evidence that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology starts decades before clinical onset. Cognitive reserve (CR) and brain reserve can be a good predictive model for AD development.

Neuroimaging can help in describing cerebral reserves, as well as in detecting AD brain pathology before the onset of clinical dementia. Education and occupation GSK2126458 cell line act as proxies for CR and are associated with a lower risk of AD and delayed onset of symptoms. The apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-epsilon 4 allele is a strong risk factor for AD and is associated with lower hippocampal volume even in normal aging. A fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography study of brain metabolism shows different metabolic phenotypes among subjects with different educational levels and ApoE genotypes. More highly educated subjects reach a clinical level when the cerebral areas involved in coping with network disruption are seriously impaired, and the AD-epsilon 4 carriers show more global metabolic brain impairment compared with non-epsilon 4 carriers. Thus, CR can counteract a genetically unfavorable background, suggesting a possible preventive strategy. AD research findings have already produced results, since recent epidemiological studies report a decreasing incidence of AD in the years. (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background: Ingestion and/or aspiration of foreign bodies (FB) are avoidable incidents.

“We propose a novel probabilistic framework to merge infor

“We propose a novel probabilistic framework to merge information from diffusion weighted imaging tractography and resting-state functional magnetic

resonance imaging correlations to identify connectivity patterns in the brain. In particular, we model the interaction check details between latent anatomical and functional connectivity and present an intuitive extension to population studies. We employ the EM algorithm to estimate the model parameters by maximizing the data likelihood. The method simultaneously infers the templates of latent connectivity for each population and the differences in connectivity between the groups. We demonstrate our method on a schizophrenia study. Our model identifies significant increases in functional connectivity between the parietal/posterior cingulate region and the frontal lobe and reduced functional connectivity between the parietal/posterior cingulate region and the temporal lobe in schizophrenia. We further establish Ispinesib supplier that our model learns predictive differences between the control and clinical populations, and that combining the two modalities yields better results than considering each one in isolation.”
“Background and Purpose: Ureteral stents are indispensable tools in endourology, although they often are associated with bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect

of alfuzosin on urinary symptoms, quality of life, and pain in patients this website after Double-J ureteral stent placement in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

Patients and Methods: This study was conducted from July 2008 to May 2009. A total of 130 patients underwent placement of a Double-J stent after retrograde semirigid ureteroscopy for ureteral stones. They were randomized in two groups. Group 1 (n = 65) received alfuzosin 10 mg once daily and group 2 (n = 65) received placebo for 1 week. Both groups

also received standardized analgesia. The stent symptoms were measured and recorded 1 week after the procedure. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square test and Student t test with P < 0.05 considered significant.

Results: The demographic profile including patient and stone-related parameters were comparable. Group 1 had significantly less urinary symptoms (P < 0.05). The quality-of-life assessment was better in the alfuzosin arm than in the placebo arm (P < 0.001). The mean pain score was 1.15 in group 1 and 3.89 in the placebo group (P < 0.001). None of the patients in either of the arms withdrew from treatment; there were minimal adverse effects in the treatment arm. The limitation of the current work includes relatively smaller sample size and use of single type of stent.

Conclusions: Alfuzosin 10 mg once daily in patients with a Double-J stent significantly decreases the bothersome urinary symptoms, besides decreasing significantly the pain associated with the stent.

Survival of patients was estimated using Kaplan-Meier plots A to

Survival of patients was estimated using Kaplan-Meier plots. A total of 146 patients

were followed for a mean of 58 months.

Results. see more Fifty-six (34%) patients developed severe HCV disease and showed shorter survival (P < 0.024). Donor age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.06) and pre-transplant viral load (VL) > 106 UI/mL (OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.42-10.61) were the only factors associated with severe HCV infection. Overimmunosuppression (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.41) was specifically associated with the development of FCH. Overall, patient survival in recipients who received a full course of anti-HCV therapy was higher than in patients who did not complete antiviral therapy (P = 0.004) or received no treatment (P = 0.007). Patients with non-severe HCV infection have a higher probability of receiving a full course of antiviral therapy (P = 0.033).

Conclusion. In conclusion, donor age, pre-transplant

VL, and overimmunosuppression were selleck screening library associated with the long-term development of severe HCV recurrence in liver grafts. Administration of a full course of antiviral therapy was associated with better survival.”
“Worldwide sales of biologic drugs exceeded US$92 billion in 2009. With many biopharmaceutical patents expiring over the next decade, a wave of second-generation or ‘follow-on’ biologics will be vying for market share and regulatory approval. Patents cover not only the drugs, but also the molecular modalities that facilitate their high-level expression. Companies selleck products have historically relied on gene amplification to create productive cell lines, yet this lengthy and imprecise process usually leads to extensive variation and unpredictable stability of expression. Biosimilar manufacturers must therefore decide whether traditional methods of cell line development will suffice or if emerging technologies can provide greater

reproducibility and speed. Volumetric yields of 1-2 g L(-1) are adequate for most production processes and the focus has shifted towards reliable and predicable product quality attributes over maximum possible titres. Recent advances in this area include cell lines with targeted genetic modifications, alternative production hosts such as PER.C6 (R) or yeast, and engineered expression vectors, including the UCOE (TM) and Selexis platforms. Host cell engineering, single-use technologies, and rapid transient gene expression are also likely to be enablers of biosimilars. Given the well-known biologics industry mantra ‘the process defines the product’, it remains to be seen how novel cell line development strategies will affect product equivalence and regulatory approval in a biosimilars context. Some recent advances in the field and how they relate to biosimilars are explored. (C) 2011 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Background: Radiographic landmarks for medial knee attachment sites during anatomic repairs or reconstructions are unknown.

Pharmacokinetic studies of boswellic acid reveal its poor absorpt

Pharmacokinetic studies of boswellic acid reveal its poor absorption through the intestine. The objective of the present study is to enhance bioavailability of boswellic acid by its complexation with phosphatidylcholine. A complex of boswellic acid was prepared with phosphatidylcholine and characterized

on the basis of solubility, melting Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor point, TLC, and IR. An everted intestine sac technique was used to study ex-vivo drug absorption of boswellic acid-phosphatidylcholine (BA-PC) complex and plain boswellic acid. Anti-inflammatory activity of the complex was compared with boswellic acid in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Hypolipidemic activity was also evaluated in Triton-induced hyperlipidemia. The complex was also converted

into vesicles (phytosomes) and compared with other vesicular systems (liposomes and niosomes) by evaluating its anti-inflammatory effect. Analytical reports along with spectroscopic data revealed the formation of a complex. The results of ex-vivo study show that BA-PC complex has significantly increased absorption compared with boswellic acid, when given in equimolar doses. The complex showed better anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic activity as compared to BA. Among all vesicular systems phytosomes showed maximum anti-inflammatory activity. Enhanced bioavailability of the BA-PC complex may be due to the amphiphilic nature of the complex, which greatly enhance the water and lipid solubility of the boswellic www.selleckchem.com/products/Pazopanib-Hydrochloride.html acid. The present study clearly indicates the superiority of complex over boswellic acid, in terms of better absorption, enhanced bioavailability and improved pharmacokinetics.</.”
“Neurofibromatosis Selleckchem Vactosertib type 1 is a common multisystemic disorder that can result in tumors of the central and peripheral nervous system. Individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 are also at increased risk to develop moyamoya syndrome, which is a cerebrovascular condition that predisposes affected individuals to develop strokes as a result of progressive narrowing

of the intracranial internal carotid arteries and failure of adequate blood supply through collateral vessels. We report a case of a young boy with neurofibromatosis type 1 with glioblastoma who developed rapidly progressive moyamoya vasculopathy after treatment with the angiogenesis inhibitor bevacizumab.”
“Purpose: To determine whether magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is influenced by genetic and cellular features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) aggressiveness.

Materials and Methods: In this HIPAA-compliant institutional review board approved study, multiple enhancing and peritumoral non-enhancing stereotactic neurosurgical biopsy samples from treatment-naive GBMs were collected prospectively, with guidance from cerebral blood volume (CBV) MR imaging measurements.

The electrical resistivity and heat capacity of Dy5Si3Ge show int

The electrical resistivity and heat capacity of Dy5Si3Ge show interesting hysteretic behavior in the vicinity of the structural transition in zero field. First principles calculations suggest that Ge

and Si atoms preferentially occupy intraslab and interslab sites in Dy5Si3Ge, respectively, which leads to dominant ferromagnetic interactions Selleck YM155 within both the orthorhombic and monoclinic structures. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3554255]“
“Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is often associated with epilepsy, mental retardation, and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Thus, screening for ASDs is important when evaluating these individuals. We examined the utility of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), two measures for screening for ASDs, in a TSC population. Twenty-one children were evaluated, with 52.4% classified as having ASDs on the SRS and 42.9% classified as such on the SCQ. Number of antiepileptic drugs significantly correlated with SRS Total score, as

did level of intellectual functioning. Evidence for convergent validity was obtained between the SRS and SCQ Total scores (r = 0.605). Moreover, all SRS subscales correlated with SCQ Total score (r>0.400). All SCQ subscales except for Communication correlated with SRS total. Overall, the results demonstrate that check details these questionnaires appear to be effective screens for ASDs in a TSC population and are measuring similar constructs. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in adults. Aberrant hyperphosphorylation of microtubule buy A-1155463 associated protein Tau and neurofilament-M/H is one of the pathological hallmarks of AD. Most of the therapeutic strategies

for treating AD are based on the inhibition of protein kinases such as glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, cyclin-dependent kinase 5, and other Tau kinases. Here, we focus on protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as a key player in AD. PP2A expression and activity are downregulated in AD brain, contributing to the aberrant phosphorylation of Tau and NF proteins in AD. Recent data published from our lab as well as others on PP2A deregulation in AD is reviewed. The role of peptidyl prolyl isomerase Pin1 in regulation of PP2A mediated neurodegeneration is further analyzed. Development of drugs for AD could be based on restoration of PP2A activity or targeting Pin1.”
“The temperature dependence of the magnetoelastic properties of the CoGaxFe2-xO4 system (for x = 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4) has been studied. It has been shown that increase in temperature resulted in reduced magnetostrictive hysteresis. For both CoGa0.2Fe1.8O4 and CoGa0.4Fe1.6O4, the measured magnetostriction amplitudes were higher at 250 K than at 150 K. It was also shown that the temperature stability of magnetostriction in CoGa0.2Fe1.

These results demonstrate the strong potentiality of hyper-Raman

These results demonstrate the strong potentiality of hyper-Raman scattering as structural probe of complex perovskites. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3599863]“
“A limited backcross procedure was utilized to introgress genes associated with grain quality traits from Oryza selleckchem rufipogon (Accession No. IRGC 105491), a

wild rice from Malaysia, to the cultivated rice O. sativa cv. MR219, a popular high yielding Malaysian rice cultivar. A set of 10 BC2F7 progenies were selected based on the field performance and phenotypic appearance in BC2F5 and BC2F6 generations, which initially started with 266 progenies in the BC2F2 generation. These 10 advanced breeding lines are similar to each other but differ in several important grain quality traits, which can be traced to O. rufipogon introgressions. Phenotyping and genotyping of BC2F7 variants were considered for QTL analysis. this website The introgressed lines did not show any significant changes compared to the recurrent parent MR219 for the traits grain density and milled rice percentage. All 10 progenies showed significantly higher head rice percentages (70-88%) than the recurrent parent MR219. Variants G13 and G15 had higher amylose contents than MR219. All variants were analyzed using polymorphic SSR markers. Of the 34 SSR markers, only 18 showed

introgression from O. rufipogon for chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 11. Graphical genotypes were prepared for each variant, and association between the introgression regions and the traits that increased grain quality was visualized. Based on marker trait ATM Kinase Inhibitor nmr association, some of the QTLs are stable across environments and genetic backgrounds and could be used universally.”
“We demonstrate active voltage-controlled spectral tuning of mid-infrared plasmonic structures. Extraordinary optical transmission gratings were fabricated on n-doped GaAs epilayers with a HfO(2) gate dielectric between the grating and the doped semiconductor. The permittivity of the GaAs was tuned

by depleting charge carriers below the top grating gate upon the application of a reverse bias to the gate. Devices were characterized both electrically and optically, and resonant transmission peak spectral and transmitted intensity shifts were achieved. Possible applications for, as well as the limitations of, the demonstrated technology are discussed. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3600230]“
“Background: Safety of a sixth consecutive dose of acellular pertussis vaccine in adolescents was assessed in a 2-armed, randomized study.

Methods: Adolescents who had received 5 doses of acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (6-dose group) received 1 dose of reduced 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine combined with tetanus toxoid and reduced diphtheria toxoid (Tdap).