The sweat sodium loss of participants in WCS (Table 3) is similar

The sweat sodium loss of participants in WCS (Table 3) is similar to values reported by other groups studying elite athletes [15, 28]. While there was no difference in sodium loss with the different

drinks, sodium balance was almost unchanged in the INW group compared to C and G conditions. This was a result of the INW drink being designed for full sodium replacement. Sodium intake is essential for the absorption and retention of fluid during exercise [27]. Results from hydration testing in other sports have shown elite athletes have difficulty replacing sodium lost during training using fluid replacement drinks [19, 29]. These finding, coupled with our results from CCS, can be explained in part by the ad libitum fluid consumption study protocol. This indicates athletes may have difficulty self-regulating their hydration requirements particularly in cold conditions, as it is easy to this website become caught-up in the focus and intensity of training and/or competition. This further supports the need for individual, sport specific

or relative fixed volume fluid replacement recommendations. Blood glucose carbohydrates intake Examination of the energy demands of Laser sailing by Castagna and Brisswalter [11] revealed aerobic metabolism is the main energy source used by elite sailors to fulfill muscle energy demands. As such, blood glucose levels in CCS were trending towards a decrease over time (p = 0.074), despite the supply of Pitavastatin research buy exogenous carbohydrates in the G

and IN groups; although, the average carbohydrate intake in these groups was only 61 g and 42 g respectively. Interestingly, the blood glucose concentration NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase of the C group was stable through the 2.5 h training session despite consuming no exogenous carbohydrates (Figure 1D). In comparison, trained cyclists working at 74% VO2max in laboratory conditions experienced a significant decrease in blood glucose after 90 minutes of cycling [30]. Examination of substrate metabolism during 60 minutes of cycling at 70% VO2max at 0°C revealed almost 60% of energy expenditure was from carbohydrate metabolism [31]. This level was maintained regardless of infused non-esterified fatty acids, suggesting that carbohydrates are a preferred source of energy in cold conditions as fatty acid metabolism has been found to increase based on substrate availability in temperature environments [32]. While the intensity of Laser sailing in conditions similar to CCS reached approximately 65% VO2max [11], this difference in intensity may have been enough to prevent deleterious changes in blood glucose in the C condition. In WCS, blood glucose levels were surprisingly unchanged between the drink conditions (Figure 2D). Although a main effect for time was observed (p = 0.

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