In contrast, both the French National Consultative Ethics Committee and German Society of Human Genetics have broadened this biologic definition, noting that results of a genetic test are of interest to the extended family, including legal relatives such as spouses (France National Consultative Ethics Committee for Health and Life Sciences (CCNE) 2003; German Society of Human Genetics 1998). In Canada and the USA, however, the various guidelines examined applied primarily to physician disclosure to family, selleckchem rather than intrafamilial disclosure. These guidelines do not adopt positions Doramapimod solubility dmso defining the genetic family, instead affirming that with regards to
genetic information, the privacy considerations of the individual should prevail (Watson and Greene 2001; Canadian Medical Association 1999; American Society of Human Genetics 2000). While these debates regarding the appropriate definition KPT-330 ic50 of the family still persist, some jurisdictions have adopted legislation (generally more authoritative than guidelines) that defines family in relation to genetic information. The USA enacted the Genetic Information Non Discrimination Act (GINA) in 2008, which seeks to prevent the use of genetic information of individuals or their family members as grounds to deny access to health
insurance or employment. In defining family, the act identifies relatives up to and including fourth degree relatives (U.S. Bill H.R. 493 Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (110th Cong.) 2008). Further, the definition also includes eligible dependents, though eligible dependents are limited to married spouses and adopted children (U.S. Bill H.R. 493 Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (110th Cong.) 2008). By emphasizing
blood relatives and traditional legal relationships, the position of USA closely resembles the expanded biologic view of genetic family. The state of Illinois has adopted similar legislation, but also includes any individual related by blood or law to Phospholipase D1 the patient or his or her child or spouse, thus greatly increasing the pool of potential family members (Genetic Information Privacy Act 2009). Australia adopted guidelines for the use and disclosure of genetic information to patients’ genetic relatives, who are defined to include only individuals related by blood (Government of Australia 2009). Furthermore, disclosure is recommended to up to third degree relatives. These guidelines apply to disclosure by private sector health professionals (explicitly excluding public sector professionals/facilities and the government) without the consent of the patient, which might be why the boundaries of genetic relatives are so narrowly defined.