The gene for insulin-degrading enzyme on chromosome 10 has also been associated with AD.188,190 Since this gene has been shown to degrade Aβ in primary neuronal culture, it is a good candidate genetic risk factor for AD. Also, multiple regions on chromosome 9,187,189 chromosome 6,171,172 chromosome 1,191,192 and chromosome
19189 have been reported to associate with the risk for AD. Other genes reported to associate with AD include those for cathepsin D,37 nerve growth factor (NGF),137 FE65 (an adapter protein),193 LBP-lc/CP2/LSF Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical transcription factor,193 bleomycin hydrolase,193 α1-antichymotrypsin,193 intcrleukin-1 ,194,195 cyclooxygenase-2,191,192,196 NOS-3 (NOS, nitric oxide synthase),197 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical transferrin C2,198 and many other genes.37 However, the exact roles for these genes in the pathogenesis of AD are not yet clear, and some of these associations can be considered as insufficiently replicated. Nevertheless, they offer hope for progress in the identification of susceptibility genes, as well as for functional analysis of the associated gene products, which will further contribute to our understanding Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of AD pathogenesis. Conclusion Linkage studies and association analysis arc the two principal strategies of the last 20 years that have led to the identification of specific gene variants that contributing to the pathogenesis
of AD. The overall conclusion from these studies is that the majority of AD is complex, is inherited Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in a nonmendelian pattern,
and involves the interplay of susceptibility genes with environmental factors. Aging is still a crucial factor in the onset of this disease. Since the current genetic associations only account for about 50% of the population risk for AD, it is believed that more new loci will be disclosed to associate with AD, either as causative genes or as genetic risk factors. In the near future, we would expect linkage, association, and positional cloning studies Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with larger samples, and more sophisticated statistical, genomic, and proteomic analytical methods to further elucidate the genetic bases of AD. Selected abbreviations and acronyms Aβ β-amyloid AD Alzheimer’s disease APOE apolipoprotein E APP amyloid precursor protein FAD familial Alzheimer’s disease Carfilzomib PS1 presenilin 1 PS2 presenilin 2 SAD sporadic Alzheimer’s disease SNP single nucleotide polymorphism
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