The following analysis seeks to explain how trade openness affects aggregate industrial SO2 emission through its impact on the structural determinants for these three components of region-specific environmental variations. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Aims: Hereditary as well as acquired thrombophilia is associated with a higher incidence of severe obstetric complications such as preeclampsia, spontaneous pregnancy loss, placental abruption, and fetal
growth retardation. The aim of our study was to examine the association of selected thrombophilic polymorphisms (factor V Leiden, MTHFR C677T, and MTHFR A1298C) with pregnancy complications in the Slovak majority population and the Roma (Gypsy) ethnic population. The study included Entinostat price 354 women; 120 patients and 105 controls from the Slovak majority population, 50 patients
and 79 controls from the Slovak Torin 2 mw Roma population. Genotyping was performed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method using TaqMan((R)) MGB probes. Results: A statistically significant higher frequency of factor V Leiden (p=0.001, odds ratio [OR]=5.9) and MTHFR C677T polymorphism (p=0.011, OR=1.7) was observed in the Slovak majority patient group compared to the control group. The incidence of MTHFR A1298C polymorphism between patients and controls did not differ significantly. None of the three polymorphisms studied was in association with pregnancy complications in the group of Roma women. Conclusions:
Our study has confirmed the variable distribution of selected thrombophilic polymorphisms in different ethnic groups as well as their various effects on the clinical phenotype.”
“A series of diimine Schiff bases and their polymers were synthesized via the oxidative polycondensation reaction. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by H-1-NMR, C-13-NMR, FT-IR and UV-vis spectral measurements. Electrochemical Mdm2 inhibitor and optical band gap values of synthesized compounds were determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-vis measurements, respectively. Fluorescence measurements of the compounds were conducted in various solvents. The effects of solution concentration on the fluorescence spectra were investigated and quantum yield was calculated for the polymer of 5-(diethylamino)-2-(biphenylmethylene) hydrazonomethylphenol (PDEAHP). According to fluorescence measurements, the quantum yield of PDEAHP was found as 16 % in DMF solution. Thermal characteristics of polymers were studied by TG-DTA and DSC analyses.”
“Metformin is known to stimulate glucose uptake, but the mechanism for this action is not fully understood.
2 +/- 0.9 (p = 0.08 vs. basetine) after fluticasone plus montelukast, increasing then to 3.8 +/- 1.8 after montelukast alone (p = 0.6 vs. baseline).\n\nConclusions: Leukotriene receptor antagonists administered systemically might decrease small airway/alveolar CT99021 cell line sites of inflammation when combined to inhaled corticosteroid therapy. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Ferromagnetic (FM) material dependence of the uncompensated (UC) antiferromagnetic (AF) moments in AF/FM exchange biased bilayers has been studied using the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism technique in the AF/FM
(AF = gamma-Mn-Ir, FM = Ni-Co, Co-Fe, Fe-Ni) bilayers. The direction and magnitude of the UC-Mn moment change significantly when the composition of the FM layer changes. The crystal structure of the FM layer affects
the magnitude of the UC-Mn moments. The UC-Mn moments and the FM moments of Fe-rich alloys prefer the anti-parallel alignment. Conversely, the UC-Mn moments align parallel to the FM moments in Co-rich or Ni-rich regions. A first-principles calculation pertaining to the L1(2)-Mn(3)Ir/FM (FM = Ni(4-n)Co(n), Co(4-n)Fe(n), Fe(4-n)Ni(n); n = 0, 1, 2, 3) bilayer system was carried out to characterize the UC-Mn moments near the interface. It was found that the UC-Mn moments originate from the reorientation of the magnetic moments of Mn and other ferromagnetic atoms near the AF/FM interface. The Danusertib calculated result for the compositional dependence of the UC-Mn moment is in good agreement with the obtained experimental data. As a result, the dependence of the UC-Mn moment on the composition of selleck chemical the FM layer can be explained qualitatively based on the model that the band filling fraction modifies the direction and the magnitude of exchange coupling between AF and FM atoms, depending on the crystal structure and the composition of the FM layer. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics.
“Purpose. This study evaluated F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with Kikuchi disease (KD), or histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis.\n\nMaterials and methods. We evaluated the F-18-FDG PET/CT findings of seven patients (one man, six women) with KD, ranging in age from 23 to 66 years (mean 36 years). All the patients had been diagnosed based on the pathological findings of a biopsy and clinical course.\n\nResults. The maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) of FDG uptake in affected lymph nodes were 2.05-13.94 (mean +/- SD, 6.25 +/- 3.32). In all the patients but two, the lymph nodes with the SUVmax were located in the neck. All the lymph nodes had a diameter of <30 mm. In nonneck regions, the SUVs of the swollen lymph nodes tended to indicate lower uptake.\n\nConclusion. FDG-PET/CT was capable of visualizing general regions containing lymph nodes and was useful for making clinical decisions as to biopsy sites.
The tests also indicated that a number of types of proprietary
plastic vacutainers appeared to contain significant amounts of endotoxin. However, even when appropriate blood collection CT99021 in vivo containers and calculation methods were used, the levels of endotoxin in serum samples detected by LAL assay were unlikely to reflect the total quantities of endotoxin in that sample and more likely to reflect the capacity of a given serum sample to sequester endotoxin. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“DNA-based individual identification and RNA-based tissue identification represent two commonly-used tools in forensic investigation, aiming to identify crime scene sample donors and helping to provide links between DNA-identified sample donors and criminal acts. Currently however, both analyses are typically performed separately. In this proof-of-principle study, we developed an approach for the simultaneous analysis of forensic STRs, amelogenin, and forensic mRNAs based on parallel targeted Entinostat DNA/RNA sequencing using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (R) (PGM (TM)) System coupled with
the AmpliSeq (TM) targeted amplification. We demonstrated that 9 autosomal STRs commonly used for individual identification (CSF1PO, D16S539, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, TH01, TPOX, and vWA), the AMELX/AMELY system widely applied for sex identification, and 12 mRNA markers previously established for forensic tissue identification (ALAS2 and SPTB for peripheral blood, MMP10 and MMP11 for menstrual blood, HTN3 and STATH for saliva, PRM1 and TGM4 for semen, CYP2B7P1 and MUC4 for vaginal secretion, CCL27 and LCE1C for skin) together with two candidate reference mRNA markers (HPRT1 and SDHA) can
all be successfully combined. Unambiguous mRNA-based tissue identification was achieved in all samples from all forensically relevant tissues tested, and STR sequencing analysis of the tissue sample donors was 100% concordant with conventional STR profiling using a commercial kit. Successful STR analysis was obtained from 1 ng of genomic DNA and mRNA analysis from 10 ng total RNA; however, sensitivity limits Torin 2 were not investigated in this proof-of-principle study and are expected to be much lower. Since dried materials with noticeable RNA degradation and small DNA/RNA amplicons with high-coverage sequencing were used, the achieved correct individual and tissue identification demonstrates the suitability of this approach for analyzing degraded materials in future forensic applications. Overall, our study demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneously obtaining multilocus STR, amelogenin, and multilocus mRNA information for combined individual and tissue identification from a small sample of degraded biological material.
A Cochrane review identified 1 additional study with
a low level of evidence. This systematic review discusses and tabulates every article of high or moderate level of evidence. For patients with diabetic TPCA-1 price foot ulcers (DFU) complicated by surgical infection, HBOT reduces chance of amputation (odds ratio [OR] 0.242, 95% Cl: 0.137-0.428) (7 studies) and improves chance of healing (OR 9.992, 95% Cl: 3.972-25.132) (6 studies). Positive efficacy corresponds to HBOT-induced hylperoxygenation of at-risk tissue (7 studies) as measured by transcutaneous oximetry. HBOT is associated with remission of about 85% of cases of refractory lower extremity osteomyelitis, but an RCT is lacking to clarify extent of effect. There is a high level of evidence that HBOT reduces risk of amputation in the DFU population by promoting partial and full healing of problem
wounds. There is a moderate level of evidence that HBOT promotes healing of arterial ulcers, calciphylactic and refractory vasculitic ulcers, as well as refractory osteomyelitis. There is a low to moderate level of evidence that HBOT promotes successful “take” of compromised flaps and grafts.”
“Lung cancer is DZNeP mw the leading cause of mortality worldwide. However, there is a lack of effective therapeutic strategies. Currently, tumor immunotherapy based on exosomes, which are secreted by a variety of cell types including tumor cells, has drawn particular attention and are suggested to have the potential for exploitation in tumor therapy. Nevertheless, the therapeutic efficacy mediated via tumor cell-derived exosomes is not satisfactory. Rab27a, one of
the Rab family PD98059 of small GTPases, has been suggested to be important in exosome secretion. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine whether exosomes derived from Rab27a-overexpressing cells elicited more potent antitumor immunity. A Rab27a-overexpressing line was established via transfection of a Rab27a overexpression vector into the human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line, A549. Exosomes were isolated and the typical exosomal protein markers, CD9, CD63, heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 and Hsp90, were found to be enriched in the exosomes derived from Rab27a-overexpressing cells. Subsequently, these exosomes were demonstrated to be capable of upregulating major histocompatibility complex class II molecules as well as the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 on dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that more potent maturation of DCs was induced. Furthermore, DCs loaded with exosomes derived from Rab27-overexpressing cells significantly promoted CD4(+) T cell proliferation in vitro. In addition, in vivo immunization of exosomes derived from Rab27a-overexpressing cells inhibited tumor growth in a mouse model.
that the ten-1 mutation is synthetic lethal with mutations of genes encoding basement membrane components and receptors due to pharyngeal or hypodermal defects. This indicates that TEN-1 could act redundantly with integrin INA-1, dystroglycan DGN-1, and laminin EPI-1 in C. elegans development. Moreover, ten-1 deletion sensitizes worms to loss of nidogen nid-1 causing a pharynx unattached phenotype in ten-1; nid- 1 double mutants. We conclude that TEN-1 is important for basement membrane maintenance and/or adhesion in particular organs and affects the function of somatic gonad precursor LY333531 mw cells.”
“Background: The provision of relevant clinical information on pathology requests is an important part of facilitating appropriate laboratory utilization and accurate results interpretation and reporting.\n\nPurpose: (1) To determine the quantity and importance of handwritten clinical information provided by physicians to the Microbiology Department of a hospital pathology service; and (2) to examine the impact of a Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) system Galardin inhibitor on the nature of clinical information communication to the laboratory.\n\nMethods: A multi-method and multi-stage investigation which included: (a) a retrospective audit of all handwritten Microbiology requests received over a 1-month period in the Microbiology Department
of a large metropolitan teaching hospital; (b) the administration of a survey to laboratory professionals to investigate the impact of different clinical information on the processing and/or interpretation of tests; (c) an expert panel consisting of medical staff and senior scientists to assess the survey findings and their impact on pathology practice and patient care; and (d) a comparison of the provision and value of clinical information before CPOE, and across 3 years after its implementation.\n\nResults: The audit of handwritten
requests found that 43% (n = 4215) contained patient-related clinical information. The laboratory survey showed that 97% (84/86) of the different types of clinical information provided for wound specimens and 86% (43/50) for stool ATM Kinase Inhibitor specimens were shown to have an effect on the processing or interpretation of the specimens by one or more laboratory professionals. The evaluation of the impact of CPOE revealed a significant improvement in the provision of useful clinical information from 2005 to 2008, rising from 90.1% (n = 749) to 99.8% (n = 915) (p < .0001) for wound specimens and 34% (n = 129) to 86% (n = 422) (p < .0001) for stool specimens.\n\nConclusion: This study showed that the CPOE system provided an integrated platform to access and exchange valuable patient-related information between physicians and the laboratory. These findings have important implications for helping to inform decisions about the design and structure of CPOE screens and what data entry fields should be designated or made voluntary. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
We also focus on how purinergic ligands produced and released by transplanted stem cells can be regarded as ideal candidates to mediate the crosstalk with resident stem cell niches, promoting cell growth and survival, regulating inflammation and, therefore, contributing to local tissue homeostasis and repair.”
“A facile synthetic route to substituted trans-2-arylcyclopropylamines was developed to provide access to mechanism-based selleck inhibitors of the human flavoenzyme
oxidase lysine-specific histone demethylase LSD1 and related enzyme family members such as monoamine oxidases A and B. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Uterine Natural Killer (uNK) cells are the most abundant lymphocyte population recruited in the uteri during murine and human pregnancy. Previous investigation on uNK cells during mouse pregnancy focused more on its accumulation in postimplantation periods, which were believed to play important LY2835219 datasheet roles in regulating trophoblast invasion and angiogenesis towards successful placentation. However, by using recently developed methods of Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) lectin, a closer examination during mouse preimplantation revealed that there were also dynamic
regulations of uNK cell, suggesting a major regulation by steroid hormones. Here we provide a detailed examination of uNK cells distribution during mouse early pregnancy by DBA lectin reactivity, with emphasis on preimplantation
period and its hormonal regulation profiles. Our results showed that uNK precursor cells or its cell membrane specific components could be recruited in the uterus by estrogen or/and progesterone, and the effects could be completely abolished by specific antagonists of their nuclear receptors (estrogen and progesterone receptor). These results suggested that the preimplantation uterus, through concerted hormone regulation, could recruit uNK precursor cell or its specific cellular component, Erastin which might be conducive for uterine receptivity and further uNK construction/function during postimplantation.”
“Objectives: To review the safety of embolization in patients affected with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) presenting with diffuse pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMS). To correlate the initial presentation and long-term results of embolization according to the distribution of PAVMs.\n\nMaterials and methods: All consecutively treated patients were divided into three groups, according to the involvement of every subsegmental pulmonary artery (group 1), segmental artery (group 2), or both (group 3) of at least one lobe. Age, sex, initial clinical presentation, and Pao(2) were recorded before embolization. Per and postprocedural complications were carefully recorded. Clinical outcome and imaging follow-up were obtained at 6 months and annually thereafter.
We analyse the evolutionary trajectory of a subset of highly conserved cyanobacterial proteins (core) along the plastid lineage, those which were not lost after the endosymbiosis. We concatenate the sequences of 33 cyanobacterial
core proteins that share a congruent evolutionary history, with their eukaryotic counterparts to reconstruct their phylogeny using sophisticated evolutionary models. We perform an independent reconstruction using concatenated 16S and 23S rRNA GS-1101 purchase sequences. These complementary approaches converge to a plastid origin occurring during the divergence of one of the major cyanobacterial lineages that include N-2-fixing filamentous cyanobacteria and species able to differentiate heterocysts.”
“A set of 49 protein nanopore-lipid bilayer systems was explored by means of coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations to study the interactions
between nanopores and the lipid bilayers in which they are embedded. The seven nanopore species investigated represent the two main structural classes of membrane proteins (alpha-helical and beta-barrel), and the seven different bilayer systems range in thickness from similar to 28 to similar to 43 angstrom. The study focuses on the local effects of hydrophobic mismatch between the nanopore and the lipid bilayer. The effects of nanopore insertion on lipid bilayer thickness, the dependence between hydrophobic thickness selleck and the observed nanopore tilt angle, and the local distribution of lipid types around a nanopore in mixed-lipid bilayers are all analyzed. Different BAY 63-2521 datasheet behavior for nanopores of similar hydrophobic length but different geometry is observed. The local lipid bilayer perturbation caused by the inserted nanopores suggests possible mechanisms for both lipid bilayer-induced protein sorting and protein-induced lipid sorting. A correlation
between smaller lipid bilayer thickness (larger hydrophobic mismatch) and larger nanopore tilt angle is observed and, in the case of larger hydrophobic mismatches, the simulated tilt angle distribution seems to broaden. Furthermore, both nanopore size and key residue types (e.g., tryptophan) seem to influence the level of protein tilt, emphasizing the reciprocal nature of nanopore-lipid bilayer interactions.”
“Antibodies have important roles in controlling cellular immunity through interaction with activating or inhibitory Fc gamma receptors (Fc gamma Rs). Fc gamma R engagement can facilitate receptor cross-linking on target cells, or induce retrograde Fc gamma R signals to stimulate or suppress antibody-dependent, cell-mediated depletion of antigen-bearing target cells. Recent studies uncover unexpectedly important roles for Fc gamma Rs in the anticancer action of antibodies designed to trigger tumor cell apoptosis or enhance antitumor immunity. Here, we outline a conceptual framework for understanding these findings and discuss their mechanistic and translational implications.
Higher GNF was related to greater functional well-being (p < .01) irrespective of estimated premorbid IQ\n\nConclusion: The finding that
higher premorbid cognitive ability buffers the effect of neuropsychological impairment on emotional well-being after brain tumour advances understanding of the role of cognitive reserve in adjustment to neurological disorders. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Multivariate meta-analysis is becoming increasingly popular and official routines or self-programmed functions have been included in many statistical software. In this article, we review the statistical methods and the related software for multivariate meta-analysis.
Emphasis is placed on Bayesian methods using Markov chain Monte Carlo, and codes in WinBUGS are provided. The various model-fitting options are illustrated TPCA-1 clinical trial in two examples and specific guidance is provided on how to run a multivariate meta-analysis using various software packages.”
“WO3-mediated photocatalytic oxidation is achievable WH-4-023 supplier in the presence of electron acceptors as an alternative to O-2 or co-catalysts enabling O-2 reduction pathway. This study suggests the combination with Fenton-like reagent (Fe(III)/H2O2) as a strategy to improve the photocatalytic activity of WO3. Under neutral pH condition where Fe(III) is present as iron oxide precipitate, photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) proceeded 3-fold faster in the WO3/Fe(III)/H2O2 system relative to the WO3/H2O2 system, while no noticeable oxidation occurred in the systems of Fe(III)/H2O2, WO3, and WO3/Fe(III).
Such efficacy increase at circumneutral pH was observed in photocatalytic oxidation of diverse organics including phenol, bisphenol A, acetaminophen, and carbamazepine. Compatible with the pH dependence of photocatalytic activity of the WO3/Fe(III)/H2O2 system, hydroxylation of benzoic acid and coumarin as indirect indication for OH radical production was drastically retarded with increasing pH. The pH effect indicates that OH radical as primary oxidant may be responsible for the kinetic enhancement in the WO3/Fe(III)/H2O2 system. In that platinum deposits or Nafion layers as physical barriers possibly inhibit surface Fe(III) precipitation, see more use of platinized or Nafion-coated WO3 caused the negligible photocatalytic improvement in the ternary system. Effective oxidative degradation in the presence of the UV cut-off filter corroborated visible light activation of the WO3/Fe(III)/H2O2 system. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The scattered tree layer that defines savannas is important for structuring the understory community and determining patterns of overstory recruitment. However, encroachment by woody plants has altered overstory tree densities and regeneration dynamics.
It is concluded that HRAM offered as part of the feed alter biomarkers of inflammation in SF of LPS-challenged horses. Larger studies that seek to clarify effects of HRAM on synovial fluid cell counts and possible role of HRAM-induced interference with complement
signalling are warranted.”
“A compact integrated dual-port diversity antenna is presented, which is suitable for long-term JQ-EZ-05 purchase evolution (LTE) and wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) applications in handheld devices. The antenna design merges two planar inverted F-shaped antennas (PIFAs) into a single-antenna structure that not only occupies less volume in a handheld device but also eliminates the need to separate two individual antenna elements, which provides further space-saving efficiency. This can be accomplished even while maintaining desirable isolation and diversity characteristics. The proposed design can thus be utilized in compact wireless handheld communication devices that require signal diversity. An example design is described for 2.6-GHz LTE/Wi-Fi bands (2.5-2.7 GHz), which has been implemented in real-world cellular phone environments and include interactions between the antenna, other components LY2157299 order of the device, and a model of a human head ( the specific anthropomorphic mannequin
phantom). The simulated and experimental results, including S-parameters, radiation patterns, signal correlations, and mean effective gain values, have validated the proposed antenna design as useful for compact mobile devices.”
“We study signaling pathway the global asymptotic stability of the positive equilibrium in a population model with a piecewise constant argument. Gopalsamy and Liu conjectured that the positive equilibrium N* = 1/a+b is globally asymptotically stable if and only if the following inequality holds,\n\nr <=
(r) over bar(r) over cap(alpha) 1+alpha/alpha ln 1+alpha/1-alpha\n\nwhich has been solved by Muroya and Kato (2005), Li and Yuan (2008) for alpha := a/b is an element of [0.1). But, for alpha is an element of(-1, 0), is the above inequality the necessary and sufficient condition for the global asymptotic stability of the positive equilibrium 1/a+b ? In this paper, we will give an affirmative answer to the extended Gopalsamy and Liu’s conjecture. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A 38-year-old man with a history of uncontrolled hypertension was investigated for atypical chest pains and found to have an aneurysm of the ascending aorta and a coexisting coarctation of the aorta. The timing and sequence of surgical repair of these 2 pathologies are controversial. We report an elective single-stage operation in which the ascending aorta was replaced and an extracardiac bypass from the ascending to the descending aorta was performed with excellent results.
This indicates that lithium directly inhibits GSK-3 beta in an Akt-independent manner. In rat hippocampal slices Li2CO3 significantly inhibited phosphorylation of Akt1/2 at Ser473/474, GSK-3 beta at Ser9, and beta-catenin at Ser33/37 Selleck mTOR inhibitor and Thr41. Taken together, these results indicate that lithium exerts its potentiating and inhibiting bidirectional actions on GSK-3 beta activity. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that is secreted by tumor cells plays a key role in angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is produced by inflammatory
cells, such as stromal granulocytes (PMN), remodels the extracellular matrix and is known to promote angiogenesis indirectly by
interacting with VEGF. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PMN-derived MMP-9, its interaction with VEGF, and the efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy targeting MMP-9 with oral Doxycycline and VEGF with Bevacizumab in pancreatic cancer (PDAC).\n\nInhibitors to MMP-9 (Doxycycline) and VEGF (Bevacizumab) were used alone or in combination in an in vitro angiogenesis assay to test their effect on angiogenesis caused by MMP-9, VEGF, PMN and PDAC cells. In an in vivo model of xenografted PDAC, treatment effects after 14 days under monotherapy with oral Doxycycline or Bevacizumab and a combination
of both were evaluated.\n\nIn Givinostat nmr vitro, PMN-derived MMP-9 had a direct and strong proangiogenic effect that was independent and additive to PDAC-derived VEGF. Complete inhibition Selleckchem HKI 272 of angiogenesis required the inhibition of VEGF and MMP-9. In vivo, co-localization of MMP-9, PMN and vasculature was observed. MMP inhibition with oral Doxycycline alone resulted in a significant decrease in PDAC growth and mean vascular density comparable to VEGF inhibition alone.\n\nPMN derived MMP-9 acts as a potent, direct and VEGF independent angiogenic factor in the context of PDAC. MMP-9 inhibition is as effective as VEGF inhibition. Targeting MMP-9 in addition to VEGF is therefore likely to be important for successful anti-angiogenic treatment in pancreatic cancer.”
“A series of small molecule orally bioavailable ghrelin receptor agonists have been identified through systematic optimisation of a high throughput screening hit. Crown copyright (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This study reports the results of 38 infraorbital maxilla impacts performed on male cadavers. Impacts were performed using an unpadded, cylindrical impactor (3.2 kg) at velocities between 1 and 5 m/s. The peak force and acoustic emission data were used to develop a statistical relationship of fracture risk as a function of impact force.