Clinical data, neonatal neuroimaging, laboratory results, the his

Clinical data, neonatal neuroimaging, laboratory results, the histopathological features of the placenta and gastric smear within the first hour of delivery, were evaluated.\n\nResults: Cerebral palsy was detected in 11 out of 141 preterm newborns (7.8%). The incidence of silent histological chorioamnionitis was 33.6% (43 of 128 cases). Chorioamniontis was significantly associated with the risk of unexplained cerebral palsy (p = 0.024). There were also significant correlations between maternal genital

infections and chorioamnionitis (p = 0.005), and between maternal infections and a positive smear of neonatal gastric aspirates (p = 0.000). The rate of cesarean section was 67.4% (95 out of 141 deliveries), and elective cesarean section was performed in 68 cases.\n\nConclusion: Intrauterine exposure to maternal infection was associated with a marked increase in the risk of cerebral palsy in preterm infants. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All this website rights reserved.”
“Purpose. The authors reviewed chest radiographs Lonafarnib molecular weight (CXR) and thin-section computed tomography (CT) findings

of pulmonary complications in a selected population of 50 consecutive patients with severe novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) pneumonia who were seen at the Subintensive Respiratory Unit (UTSIR) and at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at Monaldi Hospital, Naples, Italy.\n\nMaterials and methods. CXR and CT findings of 50 patients who fulfilled the World Health Organisation (WHO) buy AR-13324 criteria for S-OIV infection were reviewed by four radiologists. The final study group of 50 patients was divided into two subgroups on the basis of clinical course: group 1 consisted of 42 patients requiring noninvasive

mechanical ventilation and admitted to the UTSIR; group 2 consisted of eight patients who required ICU admission and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or advanced mechanical ventilation from October 2009 to December 2009. All patients underwent CXR and thin-section multidetector CT (MDCT) scan; the initial and follow-up radiographs and CT scans were evaluated for the presentation and follow-up pattern (consolidation, ground-glass opacities, nodules, reticulation), distribution and extent of abnormality.\n\nResults. All patients had radiological signs of pulmonary involvement. Ground-glass opacity and consolidation, which was mainly peripheral, was the most frequent finding. In three patients, we report for the first time in viral pneumonia the reversed halo sign. Lesion extent was related to aggressiveness of the illness. More often, both lungs were involved (82%). Thoracic comorbidity was present in 18% of patients; 22% of patients was obese, and in this group, the clinical course was more aggressive than in the others with the same lesion extent at imaging. Furthermore, superinfection led to worsening of the clinical conditions.\n\nConclusions.

Recollected procedural pain scores at 24 hours after surgery were

Recollected procedural pain scores at 24 hours after surgery were not statistically different between groups. Median scores on the Wong-Baker FACES pain scale for the 2 groups were 2.0 (interquartile range, 3.1) for the fentanyl-first group and 1.5 (interquartile range, 2.5) for the midazolam-first group (P = .333). There was no statistical difference in the change in vital signs from baseline to 2 surgical end points in the 2 groups. In addition, patient satisfaction with the procedure did not statistically differ between the 2 groups. Conclusions: In this study,

selective sequencing of midazolam or fentanyl during VX-770 mouse an intravenous moderate-sedation procedure did not result in a measurable difference of recollected procedural pain scores at 24 hours after third molar extraction. The choice of the sedation agents and the order of their administration should be tailored to the patient’s needs, type of surgical procedure, and surgeon preference. (C) 2015 American Association of Oral

and Maxillofacial Surgeons”
“This study investigated the effects of combined teriparatide (an anabolic agent) and monthly risedronate (an anti-resorptive agent) therapy on cancellous bone mass in orchidectomized (ORX) rats. Fifty 14-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups of ten animals each: sham-operation + vehicle; ORX + vehicle; ORX + risedronate (90 mu g/kg subcutaneous, every 4 weeks); ORX + teriparatide (30 mu g/kg subcutaneous, three times per week); and ORX + risedronate + teriparatide. After the 12-week experimental period, cancellous bone in the tibial proximal metaphysis was examined by static and dynamic histomorphometric analyses. ORX decreased bone volume

per total volume (BV/TV) and trabecular number (Tb.N), and increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Risedronate increased BV/TV and Tb.N above the sham control values, while teriparatide prevented the ORX-induced decrease in BV/TV and increased trabecular width (Tb.Wi) above sham control levels. Risedronate decreased Tb.Sp below control values, while teriparatide prevented the ORX-induced increase in Tb.Sp. The combination of teriparatide and risedronate further increased BV/TV Dorsomorphin and Tb.N and decreased Tb.Sp as a result of suppression of bone remodeling, compared with teriparatide alone. These results suggest that teriparatide and monthly risedronate exert different effects on cancellous bone structure and thus have additive effects on cancellous bone mass in ORX rats.”
“Emerging evidence indicates that chronic inflammation plays an important role in prostate carcinogenesis. Yet to date the precise molecular and cellular mechanisms linking inflammation to carcinogenesis remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the local contribution of prostate epithelial cells to the inflammatory process.

After screening by ASA grade III or IV, 248 patients who met the

After screening by ASA grade III or IV, 248 patients who met the inclusion criteria were identified, involving 104 open and 144 laparoscopic rectal resections. The distribution of the Charlson Comorbidity Index was similar between the two groups. Compared with open rectal resection, laparoscopic resection had a significantly lower total complication rate (P smaller than .0001), lower pain rate (P=.0002),

and lower blood loss (P smaller than .0001). It is notable that the two groups of patients had no significant Selleckchem GSK1904529A difference in cardiac and pulmonary complication rates. Thus, these data showed that the laparoscopic group for rectal cancer could provide short-term outcomes similar to those of their open resection counterparts with high operative risk. The 5-year actuarial survival rates were 0.8361 and 0.8119 in the laparoscopic and open groups for stage I/II (difference not significant), as was the 5-year overall survival rate in stage III/IV (P=.0548). In patients with preoperative cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, the 5-year survival curves were significantly different (P=.0165 and P=.0210), respectively. The cost per patient did not differ between the two procedures. The results of this analysis demonstrate the potential advantages of laparoscopic rectal cancer resection for high-risk patients, although a randomized

controlled trial should be conducted to confirm the findings of the present study.”
“Time waveform see more analysis is an important tool in biomedical engineering. Common signal analysis methods use scalar products and predefined signals to construct a representation for the signal of interest. Here we use a novel method to represent and analyze signals. The method relies on the Schrodinger equation and uses its eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for the representation and analysis of a given signal. We extend this so called semi-classical signal analysis method, apply it to an ECG recording and discuss its properties.”
“Aim of our study

was to compare the diagnostic performance of F-18-FDG PET/CT and MR imaging (MRI) in the detection of liver metastases in patients with adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract. A total of 49 patients with adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract who had undergone F-18-FDG PET/CT and MRI of the liver were included in this study. The MRI protocol included diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging after intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA. PET and MR images were analyzed by two experienced radiologists. Imaging results were correlated with histopathological findings or imaging follow-up as available. Sensitivities of both modalities were compared using McNemar Test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated to determine the diagnostic performance in correctly identifying liver metastases. A total of 151 metastases were confirmed.

Solid As speciation was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD)

Solid As speciation was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with X-ray energy dispersive elemental spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), while liquid As speciation was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.\n\nComposting

reduced the fern biomass by 38%, comparable to 35% reduction of the low-As fern biomass containing similar to 12 mg As kg(-1), indicating that the high As concentration in P. vittata had little detrimental effect on microorganisms involved in composting. Total As on a per composter basis and water-soluble As in composted biomass were lowered by 25% VS-4718 chemical structure and 32%, respectively. Arsenic loss from the biomass resulted mainly from generation of compost leachate, with less from the As volatilization; whereas As immobilization

was due to oxidation of As(III) to As(V), followed by precipitation of hoernesite [Mg(3)(AsO(4))(2)a <...8H(2)O] which was evidenced by XRD and SEM-EDS analysis.\n\nResults from this study indicate that composting As-rich fern significantly reduced its biomass, As content, and water-soluble As. It seems that composting can be an effective step for treating As-rich biomass before disposal in landfill.”
“Since 2008, it has been recognised by most health authorities worldwide that the abuse of newly-emerging psychoactive drugs, (‘designer drugs’/'legal highs’; DD), in youth is a rapidly increasing problem, especially in the EU, threatening to offset gains made in tackling established and illegal drugs which they are intended to mimic; DD diversity is continually

increasing to circumvent laws. The aim Selleckchem SYN-117 of the study was to determine the scale of DD abuse/availability amongst Polish youth. The surveyed test population was randomly selected from a representative group of adolescents attending high schools, secondary schools and universities throughout Poland. Questionnaires were completed by 14,511 subjects (10,083 school pupils and 4,428 students). Few persons from each group admitted using DDs; 453 schoolpupils (4.49%) vs. 81 students (1.83%). More males (4.74%) took DDs than females (2.77%). The tendency to take DDs in the company of friends was high in both DD-taking groups (>80%). DDs were consumed mostly in open spaces (34.15%), discos/pubs (21.13%) and boarding school/friend’s house (20.57). Most frequently, DDs came from shops (57.68%), friends (31.46%) or dealers (10.11%). Ensuing symptoms included; happy/euphoric mood (58.80%), talkativeness (42.51%) and hallucinations (22.85%). Over 74% of DD-takers in both groups experienced adverse reactions, and those requiring help sought it from: friends/colleagues (6.74%), doctors (5.06%), and hospitals (4.87%), but most rarely from parents/guardians (2.62%).

(C) 2013 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Publi

(C) 2013 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Thermal effects, such as cooling power and thermophysiological responses

initiated upon application of a personal cooling system, can be assessed with (i) humans, (ii) a thermal manikin and (iii) a thermophysiological human simulator. In order to compare these methods, a cooling shirt (mild cooling) and an ice vest (strong cooling) were measured Alisertib ic50 using human participants and a thermal manikin. Under all conditions, cooling was provided for 45 min, while resting at a room temperature of 24.6-25.0 degrees C and

a relative humidity of 22-24%. Subsequently, the thermophysiological human simulator was used under the same conditions to provide data on thermophysiological responses such as skin and rectal temperatures. The cooling power determined using the thermal manikin was 2 times higher for the cooling shirt and 1.5 times higher for the ice vest compared to the cooling power determined using human participants. For the thermophysiological human simulator, the cooling power of the cooling shirt was similar to that obtained using human EVP4593 mouse participants. However, it was 2 times lower for the ice vest when using the thermophysiological human simulator. The thermophysiological human simulator is shown to be a useful tool to predict thermophysiological responses, especially upon application of mild cooling intensity. However, the thermophysiological human simulator needs to be further improved for strong cooling intensities under heterogeneous

“We report an unusual example of reproductive parasitism in amphibians. Dendrobates variabilis, an Amazonian poison frog, oviposits selleck screening library at the surface of the water in small pools in plants and deposits tadpoles within the pools. Tadpoles are highly cannibalistic and consume young tadpoles if they are accessible. Deposition of embryos and tadpoles in the same pool is common. Genetic analyses indicate that tadpoles are frequently unrelated to embryos in the same pool. A pool choice experiment in the field demonstrated that males carrying tadpoles prefer to place them in pools with embryos, facilitating reproductive parasitism via cannibalism.

J Neurophysiol 108: 1473-1483, 2012 First published June 6, 2012

J Neurophysiol 108: 1473-1483, 2012. First published June 6, 2012; doi:10.1152/jn.00825.2011.-Previously we demonstrated that sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR(1)) played a prominent, but not exclusive, role in enhancing the excitability of small-diameter sensory neurons, suggesting that other S1PRs can modulate neuronal excitability. GS-7977 cell line To examine the potential role of S1PR(2) in regulating neuronal excitability we used the established selective antagonist of S1PR(2), JTE-013. Here we report that exposure

to JTE-013 alone produced a significant increase in excitability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in 70-80% of recorded neurons. Internal perfusion of sensory neurons with guanosine 5′-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP-beta-S) via the recording pipette inhibited the sensitization produced by JTE-013 as well as prostaglandin E-2. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin or the selective S1PR(1) antagonist W146 blocked the sensitization produced by JTE-013. These results indicate that JTE-013 might act as an agonist at other G protein-coupled receptors. In neurons that were sensitized by JTE-013, single-cell RT-PCR studies demonstrated that these neurons did not express the mRNA for S1PR(2). In behavioral studies, injection of JTE-013 into the rat’s hindpaw produced a significant increase in the mechanical sensitivity in the

ipsilateral, but not contralateral, paw. Injection of JTE-013 did not affect buy ARS-1620 the withdrawal latency to thermal stimulation.

Thus JTE-013 augments neuronal excitability independently of S1PR(2) PF-562271 nmr by unknown mechanisms that may involve activation of other G protein-coupled receptors such as S1PR(1). Clearly, further studies are warranted to establish the causal nature of this increased sensitivity, and future studies of neuronal function using JTE-013 should be interpreted with caution.”
“Venoms of brown spiders in the genus Loxosceles contain phospholipase D enzyme toxins that can cause severe dermonecrosis and even death in humans. These toxins cleave the substrates sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine in mammalian tissues, releasing the choline head group. The other products of substrate cleavage have previously been reported to be monoester phospholipids, which would result from substrate hydrolysis. Using P-31 NMR and mass spectrometry we demonstrate that recombinant toxins, as well as whole venoms from diverse Loxosceles species, exclusively catalyze transphosphatidylation rather than hydrolysis, forming cyclic phosphate products from both major substrates. Cyclic phosphates have vastly different biological properties from their monoester counterparts, and they may be relevant to the pathology of brown spider envenomation.”
“Hyperosmotic stress has been widely explored as a means of improving specific antibody productivity in mammalian cell cultures.

falciparum IDC including H4K5ac, H4K8ac, H4K12ac, H4K16ac, H3K9ac

falciparum IDC including H4K5ac, H4K8ac, H4K12ac, H4K16ac, H3K9ac, H3K14ac, H3K56ac, H4K20me1, H4K20me3, H3K4me3, H3K79me3 and H4R3me2. While some modifications were found to be associated with the vast majority of the genome and their occupancy was constant, others showed more specific and highly dynamic distribution. Importantly, eight modifications displaying tight correlations with transcript levels showed differential affinity

to distinct genomic regions with H4K8ac occupying predominantly promoter regions while others occurred at the 59 ends of coding sequences. The promoter occupancy of H4K8ac remained unchanged when ectopically AZD0530 in vitro inserted at a different locus, indicating the presence of specific DNA elements that

recruit histone modifying enzymes regardless of their broad chromatin environment. In addition, we showed the presence of multivalent domains on the genome carrying more than one histone mark, highlighting the importance of combinatorial effects selleck screening library on transcription. Overall, our work portrays a substantial association between chromosomal locations of various epigenetic markers, transcriptional activity and global stage-specific transitions in the epigenome.”
“PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of radiologic placement of uncovered stents for the treatment of malignant colorectal obstruction.\n\nMATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2003 to January 2008, 116 radiologic placements of uncovered stents were attempted in 99 patients (M:F, 59:40; mean age, 65 years) with malignant colorectal obstructions. The location of stent insertion, technical and clinical success, complication

rates, and patency rates of the stents in a palliative LY3039478 research buy group were also evaluated. In the palliative group, the follow-up period was 2-455 days (mean, 100 +/- 129 days).\n\nRESULTS: Radiologic stent placement was technically successful in 110 of 116 cases (94.8%). Fifty cases of stent placement were preoperative (45.5%, 50 of 110) and 60 (54.5%, 60 of 110) were performed with palliative intents. In five of six failed cases, the replacement of the stent was later performed with the assistance of colonoscopy. One patient underwent an emergency operation. In 98 of 110 cases, the symptoms of obstruction were relieved, for a clinical success rate of 89.1%. Of the 50 stents that were placed successfully with preoperative intent, 44 patients underwent surgery within a mean of 10.3 days. In the palliative group, the patency rates were 89.7% at 1 month, 85.6% at 3 months, 80.8% at 6 months, and 72.7% at 12 months.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: The radiologic placement of uncovered stents for the treatment of malignant colorectal obstruction is feasible and safe and provides acceptable clinical results not only for preoperative decompression but also for palliative cases, especially in left-sided colonic obstructions.

009) SVI is an adverse prognostic factor, but it is not associat

009). SVI is an adverse prognostic factor, but it is not associated with a uniformly poor prognosis. Specimen Gleason score and surgical margin status are significant predictors of recurrence after radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate cancer and SVI.”
“Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) regulates cell fate and specifies the mammary mesenchyme during embryonic development. Loss of PTHrP or its receptor (Pthr1) abolishes the expression

of mammary mesenchyme markers and allows mammary bud cells to revert to an epidermal fate. By contrast, overexpression of PTHrP in basal keratinocytes induces inappropriate differentiation of the ventral epidermis into nipple-like skin and is accompanied by ectopic expression of Lef1, beta-catenin and other markers Selleckchem Elafibranor of the mammary mesenchyme. In this study, we document that PTHrP modulates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in the mammary mesenchyme using a Wnt signaling reporter, TOPGAL-C. Reporter expression ACY-738 solubility dmso is completely abolished by loss of PTHrP signaling and ectopic

reporter activity is induced by overexpression of PTHrP. We also demonstrate that loss of Lef1, a key component of the Wnt pathway, attenuates the PTHrP-induced abnormal differentiation of the ventral skin. To characterize further the contribution of canonical Wnt signaling to embryonic mammary development, we deleted beta-catenin specifically in the mammary mesenchyme. Loss of mesenchymal beta-catenin abolished expression of the TOPGAL-C reporter and resulted in mammary buds with reduced expression of mammary mesenchyme markers and impaired sexual P005091 dimorphism. It also prevented the ectopic, ventral expression of mammary mesenchyme markers caused by overexpression of PTHrP in basal keratinocytes. Therefore, we conclude that a mesenchymal, canonical Wnt pathway mediates the PTHrP-dependent specification of the mammary

“Hoechst 33258 belongs to bisbenzimidazole class of molecules having anticancer properties for their ability to inhibit topoisomerase and many other cellular processes. The aim of the present study is to understand the nature of Hoechst 33258-bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding interactions by using absorption, fluorescence and circular dichrorism (CD) measurements under simulative physiological conditions. The absorption spectra of BSA indicated the binding of Hoechst 33258 with BSA. The analysis of fluorescence data indicated the presence of both dynamic and static quenching mechanism in the binding. The associative binding constant and number of binding sites were found to be K=2.08=10(7) M(-1) and n=1.36 respectively. Biexponential fluorescence lifetime distribution of Hoechst 33258 in the presence of BSA has altered viz. T, was increased significantly from 0.3 ns (60%) to 1.2ns (13%) whereas a marginal increase in tau(2) from 3.6 ns (40%) to 4.0 ns (87%). Fluorescence anisotropy value of Hoechst 33258 has increased from 0.14 to 0.34 upon the addition of BSA.

We used particle swarm optimization to optimize the ANN structure

We used particle swarm optimization to optimize the ANN structure and initial weights (IW) for each patient and treatment fraction. Prediction accuracy is evaluated using the 1D superior-inferior lung-tumor motions of 29 lung cancer ABT-263 price patients for system delays of 120-520 ms, in increments

of 80 ms. The result is compared with four different scenarios: (1), (2) ANN structure optimization + with/without IW optimization, and (3), (4) no ANN structure optimization + with/without IW optimization, respectively. An additional simulation is performed to assess the value of optimizing the ANN structure for each treatment fraction.\n\nResults: For 120-520 ms system delays, mean RMSE values (ranges 0.0-2.8 mm from 29 patients) of 0.5-0.9 mm are observed, respectively. Using patient specific ANN structures, a 30%-60% decrease in mean RMSE values is observed as a result of IW optimization, alone. No significant advantages in prediction performance are observed, however, by optimizing for each fraction.\n\nConclusions: A new ANN-based lung-tumor motion predictor is developed for MRI-based intrafractional tumor tracking. The prediction accuracy of our predictor is evaluated using a realistic simulated MR imaging rate and system delays. For 120-520 ms system delays, mean RMSE values of 0.5-0.9 mm (ranges MLN4924 in vivo 0.0-2.8 mm from 29 patients) are achieved. Further, the advantage of patient specific

ANN structure and IW in lung-tumor motion prediction is demonstrated by a 30%-60% decrease in mean RMSE values. (C) 2012 American

Association of Physicists in Medicine. []“
“Echinacea purpurea is a widely used plant immunomodulator with a selective immunomodulatory effect depending on the dilution of the initial preparation. In low doses, it causes selective induction of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The results recommend this preparation in a wide range of concentrations for adequate correction of the immune system work aimed at restoring the Th1/Th2 balance in various diseases.”
“Background: Psychologically traumatic events can affect anybody, but consequences of psychological birth trauma for the mother are very profound, extensive Selleckchem STI571 and unforgettable. Furthermore, the mother’s response not only touches the mother, but also affects the child, the father and the society. The objective of this study was to explore the mothers’ response to psychological birth trauma.\n\nObjectives: Psychological birth trauma is a complex matter as the length of a women’s life and mother’s responds can be present through different psychological and physical ways. In this regard, the mothers suffer from its consequences, but they do not know what is going on? Mothers are getting worse every day by “the silent effects of the psychological phenomena.

In addition, neuroblastoma SK-N-BE cells were used as positive

In addition, neuroblastoma SK-N-BE cells were used as positive selleck chemicals control. Surprisingly, E2 also induced NGB up-regulation, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, in DLD-1 cells. The ER beta-mediated activation of p38/MAPK was necessary for this E2 effect. E2 induced NGB re-allocation in mitochondria where, subsequently to an oxidative stress injury (i.e., 100 mu M H2O2), NGB interacted with cytochrome c preventing its release into the cytosol and the activation of an apoptotic cascade. As a whole, these results demonstrate that E2-induced NGB up-regulation could act as an oxidative stress sensor,

which does not oppose to the pro-apoptotic E2 effect in ER beta-containing colon cancer cells unless a rise of oxidative stress occurs. These results support the concept that oxidative stress plays a critical role in E2-induced carcinogenesis and further open an important scenario to develop novel therapeutic strategies that target NGB against E2-related cancers. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

aquaglyceroporins of Escherichia coil, EcGlpF, and of Plasmodium falciparum, PfAQP, are probably the best characterized members of the solute-conducting aquaporin (AQP) subfamily. Their crystal structures have been elucidated and numerous experimental and theoretical analyses have been conducted. buy GSK1838705A However, opposing reports on their rates of water permeability require clarification. Hence, we expressed EcGlpF and PfAQP in yeast, prepared protoplasts, and compared water and glycerol permeability of both aquaglyceroporins in the presence of different osmolytes, i.e. sucrose, sorbitol, PEG300, and glycerol. We found that water permeability of PfAQP strongly depends on the external osmolyte, with full inhibition by sorbitol, and increasing water permeability when glycerol, PEG300, and

sucrose were used. EcGlpF expression did not enhance water permeability over that of non-expressing control protoplasts regardless of the osmolyte. Glycerol permeability of PfAQP was also inhibited by sorbitol, but to a smaller extent, whereas EcGlpF conducted glycerol independently of the osmolyte. Mixtures of glycerol and urea passed PfAQP equally well under isosmotic conditions, Selleck VX-689 whereas under hypertonic conditions in a countercurrent with water, glycerol was clearly preferred over urea. We conclude that PfAQP has high and EcGlpF low water permeability, and explain the inhibiting effect of sorbitol on PfAQP by its binding to the extracellular vestibule. The preference for glycerol under hypertonic conditions implies that in a physiological setting, PfAQP mainly acts as a water/glycerol channel rather than a urea facilitator. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Glioblastoma shows poor response to current therapies and warrants new therapeutic strategies.