Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO.”
“Poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (pGlcNAc) nanofiber-derived materials effectively achieve hemostasis during surgical procedures. Treatment of cutaneous
wounds with pGlcNAc in a diabetic mouse animal model causes marked increases in cell proliferation and angiogenesis. We sought to understand the effect of the pGlcNAc fibers on primary endothelial cells (EC) in culture and found that pGlcNAc induces EC motility. Cell motility induced by pGlcNAc fibers is blocked by antibodies directed against alpha V beta(3) and alpha(5)beta(1) integrins, both known to play important roles in the regulation of EC motility, 5-Fluoracil cell line in vitro and in vivo. pGlcNAc treatment activates mitogen-activated protein
kinase and increases Ets1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) expression. pGlcNAc activity is not secondary to its induction of VEGF; inhibition of the VEGF receptor does not inhibit the pGlcNAc-induced expression of Ets1 nor does pGlcNAc cause the activation of VEGF receptor. Selleck LCZ696 Both dominant negative and RNA interference inhibition of Ets1 blocks pGlcNAc-induced EC motility. Antibody blockade of integrin results in the inhibition of pGlcNAc-induced Ets1 expression. These findings support the hypothesis that pGlcNAc fibers induce integrin activation which results in the regulation of EC motility and thus in angiogenesis via a pathway dependent on the Ets1 transcription factor and demonstrate that Ets1 is a downstream mediator of integrin activation. Copyright (C) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.”
“Synaptic plasticity in inhibitory interneurons is essential to maintain a proper equilibrium between excitation and inhibition in hippocampal network. Recent studies showed that theta-burst-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) at excitatory synapses of oriens/alveus (O/A) interneurons in CA1 hippocampal check details region required the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1. However these
interneurons also express mGluR5 and the contribution of this receptor subtype in interneuron synaptic plasticity remains unexplored. We combined pharmacological and transgenic approaches to examine the relative contribution of mGluR1/5 in LTP at excitatory synapses on O/A interneurons. Bath-application of the selective mGluR1/5 agonist (s)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) induced LTP of compound excitatory postsynaptic potentials. DHPG-induced LTP was not prevented by application of either mGluR1 or mGluR5 antagonists, was still present in mGluR1 knockout mice, but was blocked by co-application of both antagonists. These results indicate that UP can be induced at O/A interneuron synapses by either mGluR1 or mGluR5 activation. As previously reported for mGluR1-dependent LTP, the mGluR5-dependent UP was independent of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.