The third passage cells were divided into negative

The third passage cells were divided into negative NU7441 nmr pressure treatment group and control group. The treatment group was induced by negative pressure intermittently (pressure: 50 kPa, 30 min/times, and twice daily). The control was cultured in conventional condition. The osteogenesis of BMSCs was examined by phase-contrast microscopy, the determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and the immunohistochemistry of collagen type I. The mRNA expressions of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL) in BMSCs were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

BMSCs showed a typical appearance of osteoblast after 2 weeks of induction by intermittent negative pressure,

the activity of ALP increased significantly, and the expression of collagen type I was positive. In the treatment group, the mRNA expression of OPG increased significantly (P < see more 0.05) and the mRNA expression of OPGL decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after 2 weeks, compared with the control.

Intermittent negative

pressure could promote osteogenesis in human BMSCs in vitro.”
“Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with a series of anionic polysaccharides such as carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium hyaluronate, xanthan gum, pectin, gellan gum were prepared by electropolymerization in aqueous solutions. Some other dopants of potassium nitrate, potassium sulfate, sodium poly(styrenesulfonate), and sodium polyacrylate were used in comparison with the anionic polysaccharides. The electrochemical properties and stability of the obtained PEDOT films were also investigated. It was found that

indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass could be used as the working electrode of the electropolymerization of EDOT and that the dopant had G418 a great influence on polymerization potential and overoxidation potential. These charged biomolecules of anionic polysaccharides were found to facilitate electropolymerization of EDOT instead of common doping anions as counterion. The electroactive PEDOT films doped with anionic polysaccharides showed stable electrochemical properties, good texture, and adhesion properties to the ITO conductive glass. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Although higher serum phosphate level is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in general population as well as chronic kidney disease patients, it has not been clarified whether higher phosphate can affect atherosclerotic plaque formation. In this study, we investigated the effect of prolonged-intake of different concentrations of phosphate on atherosclerosis formation using apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed with high fat diet including 0.6%, 1.2% or 1.8% phosphate. After 20-week treatment, atherosclerotic plaque formation in aorta in 1.8% phosphate diet group was unexpectedly less than that in the other groups.

This article will review new molecular targets for the treatment

This article will review new molecular targets for the treatment of CRC and discuss possible implications for clinical therapy. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IAA and ABA in the shoot-to-root regulation of the expression of the main Fe-stress physiological root responses in cucumber plants subjected to shoot Fe functional deficiency. Changes in the expression of the genes CsFRO1, CsIRT1, CsHA1 and CsHA2 (coding

for Fe(III)-chelate reductase (FCR), the Fe(II) transporter and H(+)-ATPase, respectively) and in the enzyme activity of FCR and the acidification capacity were measured. We studied first the ability of exogenous applications AC220 of IAA and ABA FDA approved Drug Library concentration to induce these Fe-stress root responses in plants grown in Fe-sufficient conditions. The results showed that IAA was able to activate these responses at the transcriptional and functional levels, whereas the results with ABA were less conclusive. Thereafter, we explored the role

of IAA in plants with or without shoot Fe functional deficiency in the presence of two types of IAA inhibitors, affecting either IAA polar transport (TIBA) or IAA functionality (PCIB). The results showed that IAA is involved in the regulation at the transcriptional and functional levels of both Fe root acquisition 7-Cl-O-Nec1 mw (FCR, Fe(II) transport) and rhizosphere acidification (H(+)-ATPase), although through different, and probably complementary, mechanisms. These results suggest that IAA is involved in the shoot-to-root regulation of the expression of Fe-stress physiological root responses. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“The optical efficiency

of GaN-based multiple quantum well (MQW) and light emitting diode (LED) structures grown on Si(111) substrates by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy was measured and compared with equivalent structures on sapphire. The crystalline quality of the LED structures was comprehensively characterized using x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and plan-view transmission electron microscopy. A room temperature photoluminescence (PL) internal quantum efficiency (IQE) as high as 58% has been achieved in an InGaN/GaN MQW on Si, emitting at 460 nm. This is the highest reported PL-IQE of a c-plane GaN-based MQW on Si, and the radiative efficiency of this sample compares well with similar structures grown on sapphire. Processed LED devices on Si also show good electroluminescence (EL) performance, including a forward bias voltage of similar to 3.5 V at 20 mA and a light output power of 1 mW at 45 mA from a 500 x 500 mu m(2) planar device without the use of any additional techniques to enhance the output coupling.

The resultant amine-cured thermosets, meanwhile, exhibited enhanc

The resultant amine-cured thermosets, meanwhile, exhibited enhanced thermal stability, flexural strength, storage modulus, and adhesion strength at the expense of a 5% increase in the coefficient of thermal expansion. Exceeding the stoichiometric quantity of the polyurethane precursor, however, reduced the thermal stability and modulus but further increased the coefficient of thermal expansion. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, selleck inhibitor Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 111: 3094-3103,2009″
“The fantastic ferroelectric response to the magnetic field observed in Ca(3)CoMnO(6) compound, where

the ferroelectricity is driven by the collinear magnetism, is investigated by using Monte Carlo simulation based on a one-dimensional elastic Ising model. The microscopic domain structures of spins and ionic displacements are evaluated at different temperatures under different external magnetic fields. It is revealed that the up-up-down-down Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor (up arrow up arrow down arrow down arrow) spin domains clamped with the domains of ionic displacement are responsible for the exotic ferroelectric behavior upon different magnetic fields in the low temperature range.”
“For the modification of an electrospun poly (vinylidene

fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) membrane for its potential use as an electrolyte or separator in lithium batteries, poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) was introduced into a polymer solution for electrospinning. A post heat treatment of the as-electro-spun membrane at an elevated temperature was performed for PEGDMA polymerization, and this was verified by Fourier transform infrared

spectroscopy. The results showed that no significant variations in the membrane morphology were detected when a small amount of PEGDMA (PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA mass ratio = 4/1) was incorporated. This electrospun membrane after heat treatment at 130 degrees C for 2 h exhibited a significantly higher tensile strength (6.26 +/- 0.22 MPa) than that of an electrospun PVDF-HFP membrane (3.28 +/- 0.35 MPa) without PEGDMA. The porosity Selleckchem CAL 101 and liquid absorption of the electrospun PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA (4/1) membrane were 70.0 +/- 1.6% and 267 +/- 11%, respectively, lower than those of the electrospun PVDF-HFP membrane (76.5 +/- 0.3% and 352 +/- 15%) because of the introduction of PEGDMA. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci III: 3104-3112, 2009″
“The characteristics of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (DMCPS) and trifluoromethane (CHF(3)) electron cyclotron resonance plasmas for depositing F-SiCOH low dielectric constant films were investigated by quadrupole mass spectrometry and optical emission spectroscopy. The radicals in the plasma come from the dissociation of DMCPS and CHF(3) molecules and the recombination of active radicals.

(The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2011;

(The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2011; 23:391-398)”
“The present study investigated the effects of the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib on androgen-independent cancer cells viability and intracellular signaling. Human androgen-independent PC-3 prostate cancer cells were treated with sorafenib. At concentration that suppresses extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, sorafenib treatment reduced the A-1331852 supplier mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Sorafenib also down-modulated the levels of myeloid cell leukemia 1, survivin and cellular inhibitor of

apoptosis protein 2. Sorafenib induced caspase-3 cleavage and the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c. However, no nuclear translocation of apoptosis inducing factor was detected after treatment and the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK had an obvious protective effect against the drug. In conclusion, sorafenib induces apoptosis through a caspase-dependent mechanism with down-regulated antiapoptotic proteins in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells in vitro.”
“A

study of BaTiO3 nanoparticles doped with different transition metals including Co, Fe, and Cr is presented. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy studies indicated that all the samples are highly crystalline and that transition metal dopants are successfully learn more incorporated into BaTiO3 without detectable secondary phases. Raman spectra featured three characteristic broad bands centered approximately 300, 520, and 715 cm(-1) from the tetragonal BaTiO3 without any extra peak present that may be attributed to other impurity phases. Temperature-and field-dependent magnetometry measurements and analysis revealed that all the samples show paramagnetic-like behavior originating from the transition metal ions. These

results not only allow the exclusion of potential secondary ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic phases, but also suggest that transition metal ions (Co, Cr, and Fe) in BaTiO3 click here shown in this study are present as isolated paramagnetic centers. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3556768]“
“Depression is common in Huntington’s disease, but standard rating scales have doubtful validity in this population. Using data from the European Huntington’s Disease REGISTRY study, the authors examined the discriminant value of items on the Beck Depression Inventory (N=843) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (N=768). Good discriminators of depression, apart from “”depressed mood,”" were “”guilt,”" “”loss of interest,”" and “”suicidality.”" Items that discriminated poorly were “”weight loss,”" “”sleep disturbance,”" “”loss of appetite,”" “”psychomotor retardation,,”" “”agitation,”" and “”irritability.

Varying the components

Varying the components https://www.selleckchem.com/ferroptosis.htmll PVC, plasticiser and filler, PVC membranes could be prepared with high water vapour permeability and high waterproofness simultaneously. To utilize the membranes commercially a continuous preparation process was developed. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 2119-2126,2010″
“In Arizona, other states, and other Countries, people who experience a seizure or other transient alteration

of consciousness may be legally restricted from driving. Arizona law requires that people with these conditions submit themselves for a medical review, whereas health care providers are not required to report to the authorities. Therefore, counseling people with these medical conditions about driving generally falls to health care providers, who are often not neurologists. Three hundred thirty-five consecutive charts of patients discharged from our Emergency Department were retrospectively reviewed by diagnosis codes associated with altered consciousness. A total of 267 patients met our inclusion criteria, of whom 27 (10.1%) were counseled regarding driving-by the Emergency Department physician and/or consulting neurologist. Although the counseling rate for driving was 10/29 (34.5%) when a neurologist was involved, it was

found to be only 17/238 (7.1%) when neurological services were not sought. Patients presenting with seizure were more likely to be counseled than those presenting with other episodes of loss of consciousness. Accurate knowledge of driving laws by health care workers and patients has the potential to minimize liability and improve public safety and quality of care. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Study AZD1152 inhibitor Design. A retrospective study.

Objective. To determine the critical length of fusion that warrants additional stronger fixation in lumbosacral (L-S) fusion, and to analyze the risk factors of nonunion at the L-S junction.

Summary of Background Data. Long lever arm fusion down to S1 requires stronger fixation than short lever arm fusion. However, no published criteria are available about the critical length of fusion requiring stronger fixation to the ilium or S2 to obtain

adequate stability for union at the L-S junction.

Methods. A total of 327 adult patients with degenerative lumbar disease, who were treated with instrumented fusion, including the L-S junction, were included in this study. Baf-A1 manufacturer Mean patient age was 59.7 (20-79) years and the minimum follow-up was 12 months. Union rates were compared using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Length of fusion, age, sex, lumbar lordosis at preoperative, early postoperative and final follow-ups, BMD, smoking history, associated morbidities, fat content of paraspinal muscle, methods of fusion, and levels of intercristal line were examined as independent variables to identify factors that affect union rate at the L-S junction.

Results. Of the 327 patients, 47 (14.4%) had nonunion at the L-S junction.

The gate area of the device is illuminated by an optical radiatio

The gate area of the device is illuminated by an optical radiation of 0.87 mu m from an external source which is coupled into the device through the semitransparent ITO metal at Schottky-gate to modulate the electrical and microwave characteristics

of the device. The nonanalytic Gaussian doping profile commonly considered for the channel doping of an ion-implanted GaAs MESFET has been replaced by an analytic Gaussianlike function for the simplicity of the present model. The two-dimensional (2D) potential distribution obtained by solving the 2D Poisson’s equation by including the effect of photo-generated carriers due to the incident optical radiation has been utilized to model the depletion region width below the gate of the short-channel GaAs MESFETs. The depletion width model has then been used to model the internal gate-source and gate-drain capacitances of the device operating under both the Quizartinib mouse linear and saturation regions. The effect of illumination on the Schottky https://www.selleckchem.com/products/fosbretabulin-disodium-combretastatin-a-4-phosphate-disodium-ca4p-disodium.html junction at the gate of the MESFET has been modeled by considering an induced photo-voltage developed across the junction that is superimposed on the applied gate bias voltage. The proposed model has been verified by comparing the theoretically predicted results with simulated data

obtained by using the commercially available ATLAS (TM) 2D device simulator. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3549257]“
“The human respiratory tract pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae AR39 is naturally infected by the bacteriophage phi CPAR39. The phage genome encodes six ORFs, [ORF8, ORF4, ORF5, and viral protein (VP) 1, VP2 and VP3]. To study the growth of the phage,

antibodies were generated to VP1 and used to investigate the phi CPAR39 infection. Using immunofluorescence laser confocal microscopy and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we investigated the phi CPAR39 infection of C. pneumoniae AR39. It was observed that phi CPAR39 infection differentially suppressed the C. pneumoniae protein synthesis as the polymorphic mTOR inhibitor membrane protein 10 and the secreted chlamydial protein Cpn0796 was hardly expressed while the secreted chlamydial protein Cpaf was expressed, but not secreted. The inclusion membrane protein, IncA, was demonstrated to surround the phage-infected abnormal reticulate bodies (RB) as well as being located in the inclusion membrane. As IncA is secreted by the type 3 secretion (T3S) system, it is likely that the T3S is disrupted in the phage-infected chlamydiae such that it accumulates around the infected RB.”
“Purpose: To determine the feasibility of the use of xenon-enhanced dynamic dual-energy computed tomography (CT) for visualization and quantitative assessment of collateral ventilation in a canine model with bronchial obstruction.

044) and mental development (p<0 00002)’

Conclusion

044) and mental development (p<0.00002)’

Conclusions: Swallowing dysfunctions occur in the majority of children (> 50%) with ICP. More serious disorders involving the oral and pharyngeal phases mainly

affect children with tetraplegia and profound mental impairment. These disorders continue from early infancy through childhood and adolescence and improvement has been mainly observed when only the oral phase of swallowing is affected. These are always accompanied by dysarthria symptoms, which are especially severe when dysphagia involves the oral and pharyngeal phases. Early assessment and stimulation of the swallowing function should be a common element in the rehabilitation and care of children with ICP”
“This study aimed to assess the impact of integrating a simulation-based education module into an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) curriculum on SNS-032 concentration novice learners and to test the duration of time that skills obtained during this training exercise were retained. GSI-IX The authors hypothesized that multidisciplinary, simulation-based ECMO training would improve comfort and confidence levels among participants. An ECMO training curriculum was developed that incorporated in situ simulation modules to train multidisciplinary health care professionals involved in the management of patients receiving ECMO in the pediatric cardiac intensive click here care unit (PCICU). During the

simulation, a team was

assembled similar to the one that would staff the PCICU during a routine workday. Pre- and postparticipation questionnaires were used to determine the effects on the knowledge, ability, and confidence level of the participants. The participants were required to repeat the simulation test within 6-8 months. The study enrolled 26 providers (10 fellow physicians, 12 nurses and nurse practitioners, 4 respiratory therapists). All except one had no previous training in the management of ECMO. Of the 26 participants, 24 passed the initial written and practical tests. One participant failed the written test, whereas another failed the practical test. All the responding participants scored the didactic and scenarios education as useful, at 4 or higher (5 = very useful), in improving their perception of their overall knowledge and their ability to perform the required critical performance criteria on simulated ECMO. The 20 participants who appeared for the 6 month follow-up visit to assess maintenance of competency skills demonstrated success with simulated ECMO emergencies. All four questionnaires were completed by 18 participants. Simulation-based training is an effective method of improving knowledge, ability, and confidence levels among novice ECMO specialists and physician trainees. Further research is needed to assess real-time demonstration of skills retention during ECMO emergencies.

We find that the cell’s chemotaxis drift velocity v(d) is a const

We find that the cell’s chemotaxis drift velocity v(d) is a constant in an exponential attractant concentration gradient [L]proportional to exp(Gx). v(d) depends linearly on the exponential gradient G before it saturates when G is larger than a critical

value G(C). We find that G(C) is determined by the intracellular adaptation rate k(R) with a simple scaling law: G(C) proportional to k(R)(1/2) . The linear dependence of v(d) on G = d(In[L])/dx directly demonstrates E. coli’s ability in sensing the derivative of the logarithmic attractant https://www.selleckchem.com/small-molecule-compound-libraries.html concentration. The existence of the limiting gradient G(C) and its scaling with k(R) are explained by the underlying intracellular adaptation dynamics and the flagellar motor response characteristics. For individual cells, we find that the overall average run length in an exponential gradient is longer than that in a homogeneous environment, which is caused by the constant kinase activity shift (decrease). The forward runs (up the gradient) are longer than the backward runs, as expected; and depending on the

exact gradient, the (shorter) backward runs can be comparable to runs Oligomycin A in a spatially homogeneous environment, consistent with previous experiments. In (spatial) ligand gradients that also vary in time, the chemotaxis motion is damped as the frequency omega of the time-varying Nec-1s concentration spatial gradient becomes faster than a critical value omega(c), which is controlled by the cell’s chemotaxis adaptation rate k(R). Finally, our model,

with no adjustable parameters, agrees quantitatively with the classical capillary assay experiments where the attractant concentration changes both in space and time. Our model can thus be used to study E. coli chemotaxis behavior in arbitrary spatiotemporally varying environments. Further experiments are suggested to test some of the model predictions.”
“P>The advent of novel immunosuppressive strategies in renal transplantation, with immunomodulatory properties, might facilitate long-term allograft survival. T-cell depletion, costimulation-blockade and mTor inhibition have been shown to favour anti-donor hyporesponsiveness. Recently, the combination of rATG, belatacept (Bela) and sirolimus (SRL) has been used in kidney transplantation, showing very low incidence of acute rejection and excellent 12-month graft and patient survival. Herein, we have analysed the 1-year evolution of memory/effector and regulatory T cells and assessed the donor-specific T-cell alloimmune response in a group of these patients and compared with others treated with a calcineurin-inhibitor(CNI)-based (rATG/tacrolimus/MMF), and two other Bela-based regimens (rATG/Bela/MMF and basiliximab/Bela/MMF/steroids).

Furthermore, commencing

Furthermore, commencing Baf-A1 chemical structure on day 8, SO-tDCS acutely decreased theta activity indicating long-term effects on cortical networks. Behaviorally, working memory for baited maze arms was enhanced up to day 4, indicating enhanced consolidation of task-inherent rules, while reference memory errors did not differ between groups. Taken together, we could show here for the first time an effect of SO-tDCS during NREM sleep on cognitive functions and on cortical activity in a rodent model.”
“P>Background:

A continuous epidural infusion of morphine

is the pain treatment modality for children undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) in our institution. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of having an organized acute pain service (APS) on postoperative pain management of these children.

Methods:

We conducted a retrospective cohort study using anesthetic records and the APS database to compare the postoperative pain management of children undergoing SDR before and after the introduction of the APS at the Montreal Children’s Hospital in April 2001. Ninety-two consecutive HIF cancer children who had their surgery between January 1997 and July 2006 were included. We collected data regarding

postoperative pain, opioid-induced side effects, complications (sedation, desaturations < 92%), and hospital length of stay.

Results:

Pain scores were documented more frequently after the implementation of the APS (61% vs 48.5%). Sedation scores were documented only after the implementation of the APS. Postoperative desaturation was significantly more frequent in the pre-APS group compared to the APS group (45.5% vs 6.8%, P < 0.001). Despite the fact that the epidural catheter was in place for the same duration for both groups [median of 3 days (3-3 25-75%ile)], the duration of hospitalization was 1 day shorter in the APS group compared SC79 in vitro to the pre-APS group [median of 5 (5-5 25-75%ile) vs 6 (5-6 25-75%ile) days, P < 0.001].

Conclusions:

Although we recognize that it is possible that there were changes in care not related specifically to the introduction of a dedicated APS that occurred in our institution that resulted

in improvements in general postoperative care and in length of stay, our study did show that having an organized APS allowed to significantly decrease the incidence of postoperative oxygen desaturation and to decrease the hospital length of stay by 1 day.”
“Background: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is secreted by cardiac ventricular myocytes upon pressure and volume overload and is a prognostic marker to monitor the severity of precapillary pulmonary hypertension and the extent of right heart failure. Objectives: The impact of physical exercise on NT-proBNP levels in patients with left heart disease was demonstrated previously. No data regarding patients with isolated right heart failure and the influence of acute exercise on NT-proBNP serum levels exist.

We show that oscillatory sorption

experiments of bread cr

We show that oscillatory sorption

experiments of bread crusts could be very well described by a Fickian diffusion model. Many essential features, such as the shape of the oscillatory sorption curves, and the dependency of water sorption rates on time, time-interval between successive step-wise changes in relative humidity, and selleck compound particle size are understood now to a great detail. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Raw cereal materials (CM) (corncob and wheat straw) were alkaline treated to produce insoluble fibrous residues (IF) and soluble fibrous residues (SF). Physicochemical properties of each portion were evaluated. CM contained high amounts of dietary fibre (DF; 49.87-68.65%), while IF and SF mainly contained insoluble and soluble DF, respectively. CM and IF contained essential minerals (calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus) while SF was free from heavy metals. CM and IF also exhibited DPPH radical scavenging ability (54.25 to 77.24%). good emulsification ability (3.73-5.29%) and emulsion stability (75.00-86.94%), mineral binding capacity (calcium, copper, iron, zinc), water

holding capacity (2.82-6.01 g(water)/g(sample)) and oil holding capacity (2.61-4.00 g(oil)/g(sample)). IF and SF could be potentially developed into new functional food materials. The successful production of SF into nanofibres by electrospinning showed potential applications as delivery systems for bioactive and functional ingredients.

(C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: PKC412 price Previous studies using mouse osteoblast derived MC3T3-E1 and mouse myoblast derived C2C12 cells have not completely explained the mechanisms responsible for osteoradionecrosis. Thus, the aim of this study was to advance the in vitro experimental approaches for investigations of osteoradionecrosis.

Materials and methods: The pluripotent stem cell line, mouse embryo derived C3H10T1/2, was treated with all-trans-retinoic AZD0530 research buy acid after irradiation (1, 3 and 6 Gy), and cell growth, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were assessed.

Results: We demonstrated that ionising radiation inhibited the growth and decreased ALP activity in C3H10T1/2 cells. The decrease in cell growth was not due to apoptosis but was due to cell cycle delay. The decrease in ALP activity persisted in cells that were induced to an osteoblastic lineage 24 h after irradiation.

Conclusions: Our results suggested that C3H10T1/2 cells are suitable for investigating the effects of ionising irradiation on osteoblast precursor cells.”
“Biofilms associated with the human body, particularly in typically sterile locations, are difficult to diagnose and treat effectively because of their recalcitrance to conventional antibiotic therapy and host immune responses.