An overall comparison of the mean prevalence of E. coli O157 shedding for the SEERAD and IPRAVE surveys indicated a statistically significant decline in the LXH254 concentration mean prevalence of E. coli O157 at the pat-level but no statistically significant change at the farm-level. Over the 4-year period between the surveys there was a substantial decrease in the mean proportion of cattle shedding E. coli O157 on farms. The mean pat-level prevalence of E. coli O157 more than halved from 0.089 to 0.040 between the two surveys. This result possibly reflects a change in on-farm transmission rate between the two surveys, although the effect of environmental
conditions or survival outside the host this website cannot be eliminated as possible causes of the differences observed. In two separate publications [35, 36], the R0 (the average number of secondary cases generated by a single infected individual introduced into a naive population) of the SEERAD and IPRAVE surveys were reported as 1.9  and 1.5  respectively. A difference in transmission dynamics could explain the different distribution of prevalences observed in Figure 2. Higher transmission on a farm has
been linked to the presence of super-shedding or high-level shedding animals [35, 36]. As part of the IPRAVE survey, Quisinostat clinical trial counts of E. coli O157 in pat samples were estimated. Unfortunately there is no data from the SEERAD survey on the density of E. coli O157 in farm pat samples. Therefore, no direct comparison between the numbers of super-shedders can be made between the two surveys. Research has shown that Farnesyltransferase there is an association between the presence of a super-shedder and the presence of PT21/28 on a farm [37, 42]. Therefore, we might hypothesise that there were fewer super-shedders on
farms in the IPRAVE survey as opposed to the SEERAD survey as there were significantly fewer PT21/28 strains isolated in the IPRAVE survey. Assuming an association between shedding rates and transmission rates (R0) , fewer super-shedders may explain lower transmission rates on farms in the IPRAVE study and hence the lower mean on-farm prevalence. Unfortunately, in the absence of enumeration data from the SEERAD study this supposition cannot be tested. Mean prevalence was calculated for different seasons, animal health districts (AHD) and phage types (PT). As observed with the overall prevalence results, statistically significant declines in mean prevalence of E. coli O157 were observed at the pat-level only. Marginal changes were observed at the farm-level but these were not statistically significant. The decline in the mean prevalence of pat-level shedding appears to have been driven by statistically significant reductions in the mean prevalence of PT21/28 as well as specific seasonal (spring) and regional (North East and Central) decreases. Despite the statistically significant pairwise reductions in mean pat-level prevalences there was no equivalent change in overall mean prevalence at the farm-level.