So, given that grasses surrounding urban areas are a huge source of pollen, the knowledge of the distribution and evolution of flower phenology from a limited number different of sampling points will provide high value data in bio-pollutant environmental studies. Future applications of these tools may extend to the spatial analysis of airborne pollen data especially on the location of main pollen emission and airborne spatial dispersion.AcknowledgmentsThe authors are grateful to the Andalusia Regional Government for funding the project entitled ��Analysis and modelling of the influence of genetic variation on reproductive plant phenology�� (PO6-RNM-02195) and to the Spanish Government for the project ��Climate Change Impact on the phenology of plant species in South and Centre of the Iberian Peninsula, FENOCLIM�� (CGL2011-24146).
Also to the European Social Fund for co-financing with the Spanish Science Ministry the ��Ram��n y Cajal�� contract of Dr. Garc��a Mozo.AbbreviationsGIS:Geographic information system.
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a generalized epilepsy characterized by an electroclinical trial of diffuse slow spikes-and-wave (SSW) complex with paroxysmal fast activity during sleep on electroencephalogram, mental retardation, and multiple types of generalized seizures, including atypical absences, tonic, and atonic seizures [1, 2]. LGS is usually caused by bilateral diffuse encephalopathy but localized cortical lesions, such as cortical dysplasia, cortical tuberous sclerosis, tumor, band heterotopia, and vascular malformation can also cause LGS [2�C5].
In such cases, removal of cortical tumor or lesionectomy can result in seizure-free and normal development [6�C9]. These observations suggest that LGS patients resulting from localized structural abnormalities are amenable to early surgical treatment with a significant impact on seizure control and cognitive development.It has also long been noted that the interictal and ictal epileptic discharges Carfilzomib in LGS patients are usually bilateral, synchronous, and symmetrical, but in some patients the SSW pattern shifts asymmetrically over the two hemispheres in different bursts, which suggests that multifocal lesions may exist in both hemispheres [10, 11]. Persistent focal or lateralized asymmetry of SSW activity may occur in as many as 25% of the LGS patients and is more common in patients with cognitive deficits [2, 11], which implies that focal lesions may exist in some subjects. Indeed, in sporadically reported cases multiple subpial transection with minimal cortical resection can result in satisfactory seizure control and/or IQ improvement in LGS subjects [6�C8, 12].