So, given that grasses surrounding urban areas are a huge source

So, given that grasses surrounding urban areas are a huge source of pollen, the knowledge of the distribution and evolution of flower phenology from a limited number different of sampling points will provide high value data in bio-pollutant environmental studies. Future applications of these tools may extend to the spatial analysis of airborne pollen data especially on the location of main pollen emission and airborne spatial dispersion.AcknowledgmentsThe authors are grateful to the Andalusia Regional Government for funding the project entitled ��Analysis and modelling of the influence of genetic variation on reproductive plant phenology�� (PO6-RNM-02195) and to the Spanish Government for the project ��Climate Change Impact on the phenology of plant species in South and Centre of the Iberian Peninsula, FENOCLIM�� (CGL2011-24146).

Also to the European Social Fund for co-financing with the Spanish Science Ministry the ��Ram��n y Cajal�� contract of Dr. Garc��a Mozo.AbbreviationsGIS:Geographic information system.
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a generalized epilepsy characterized by an electroclinical trial of diffuse slow spikes-and-wave (SSW) complex with paroxysmal fast activity during sleep on electroencephalogram, mental retardation, and multiple types of generalized seizures, including atypical absences, tonic, and atonic seizures [1, 2]. LGS is usually caused by bilateral diffuse encephalopathy but localized cortical lesions, such as cortical dysplasia, cortical tuberous sclerosis, tumor, band heterotopia, and vascular malformation can also cause LGS [2�C5].

In such cases, removal of cortical tumor or lesionectomy can result in seizure-free and normal development [6�C9]. These observations suggest that LGS patients resulting from localized structural abnormalities are amenable to early surgical treatment with a significant impact on seizure control and cognitive development.It has also long been noted that the interictal and ictal epileptic discharges Carfilzomib in LGS patients are usually bilateral, synchronous, and symmetrical, but in some patients the SSW pattern shifts asymmetrically over the two hemispheres in different bursts, which suggests that multifocal lesions may exist in both hemispheres [10, 11]. Persistent focal or lateralized asymmetry of SSW activity may occur in as many as 25% of the LGS patients and is more common in patients with cognitive deficits [2, 11], which implies that focal lesions may exist in some subjects. Indeed, in sporadically reported cases multiple subpial transection with minimal cortical resection can result in satisfactory seizure control and/or IQ improvement in LGS subjects [6�C8, 12].

Then, 10mL of 1 molL?1 H2SO4 was added to the beaker and the cont

Then, 10mL of 1 molL?1 H2SO4 was added to the beaker and the contents were heated at 100��C for 1h and diluted to 50mL. FivemL aliquots of these solutions were used to estimate the arsenic content.2.4. ChemicalsThe commercially procured laboratory chemicals for which the assay has been specified have been used to quantify the arsenic content. One gram of sample was dissolved in water Tofacitinib Sigma and then treated with 5mL each of concentrated nitric acid followed by H2O2. The solutions were diluted to 100mL, and 5mL aliquots were used for the analysis of total arsenic content.2.5. Amaranth Dye1g of dye sample was dissolved in water and then, treated with 5mL each of concentrated nitric and H2O2. The pH of the solution was adjusted to 5 by adding acetate buffer solution and made up to 100mL.

Then, 5mL aliquot of diluted sample was used for the analysis.2.6. ProcedureSuitable aliquots of arsenate solution (arsenic concentration 10?200 ngmL?1) were taken in 10mL volumetric flasks. Then, 2mL of 1.25 molL?1 sulfuric acid, 0.2mL of 0.008molL?1 antimony (III), 1.2mL of 0.015molL?1 ammonium molybdate, and 0.5mL of 0.01molL?1 ascorbic acid were added and allowed for 10 minutes for the formation of arsenomolybdenum blue complex. Then, 2mL of Triton X-114 (4% v/v) has been added and the solutions were diluted to the mark. These solutions were transferred into 30mL centrifuge tubes and phase separation was achieved by centrifuging them at 3800rpm for 5min. The centrifuge tubes were cooled in an ice bath to harden the viscous phase of the surfactant-rich micellar phase.

Then, the aqueous phase was separated by simple decantation method. The surfactant-rich micellar phase was homogenized by the addition of ethanol and made up to 5mL. The absorbance values were measured at 690nm against the reagent blank.3. Results and DiscussionThe proposed method is based on the reaction of arsenic (V) with molybdate to form arsenomolybdate and its reduction to arsenomolybdenum blue complex in presence of a reducing agent. This reaction has been proposed based on the phosphate’s reaction with molybdate to form phosphomolybdenum blue in acidic medium and its application to water samples through cloud point extraction [15]. The reaction has been explored to develop a simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method to measure arsenic at nanogram level concentrations.

The arsenomolybdate formed in acidic medium with molybdate can be reduced to arsenomolybdenum blue complex with antimony (III) in presence of ascorbic acid as reducing agent. The blue-colored complex exhibited absorption maximum at 840nm in aqueous condition. Surfactants have been extensively used to sensitize the reaction Drug_discovery or to separate the analyte phase without using organic solvent as a medium. Hence, a nonionic surfactant has been used to extract the arsenomolybdenum blue complex by cloud point method at room temperature.

As discussed earlier, our study suggested OI

As discussed earlier, our study suggested OI sellekchem is more sensitive than the traditional PaO2/FiO2 ratio in assessing the oxygen exchanging status. For this reason, OI can be a potential predictor for risks of development of ALI and ARDS in patients with acute respiratory failure and thus enables earlier modification of ventilation strategy.Our study showed preexisting CVA was an independent predictor for ventilator weaning failure. Although acute stroke patients who require mechanical ventilation are known to carry poor outcomes [27, 28], preexisting cerebral infarction, and cerebral hemorrhage in patients admitted to ICU for a different disease are not necessarily associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation [29], which instead, may be related to the extent of neurological deficit.

However, preexisting CVA was shown to be a risk factor for weaning failure in our study. This may be explained by the older age (78.3 year old versus 69.4 year old, P = 0.003) and higher number of comorbidities (2.9 versus 2.19, P = 0.01) in patients with preexisting CVA in our study.Change in OI in the 1st 3 days was shown to correlate with weaning outcome in our study, though multivariate analysis failed to establish its role as an independent predictor. The relationship between OI and weaning outcome was discussed in several studies. In the study by Tseng et al., they demonstrated that congestive cardiac failure (P = 0.009), initial high oxygenation index value (P = 0.04), increased SOFA scores (P = 0.01), and increased APACHE II scores are independent predictors of ventilator dependence in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia [30].

The study by Gajic et al. also suggested that age, OI, and cardiovascular failure three days after intubation are predictors of death or prolonged mechanical ventilation [31]. Comparing with the above mentioned studies, the heterogeneous nature of our ventilated patients may account for the different result in our study.Our study has several limitations. First, a retrospective review of existing data was conducted, inevitably, disadvantage such as missing key data in small amount of patients would occur. This may reduce the representativeness of the sample. Second, the relatively small sample size implies a single data may have a greater influence on final results. Despite this, it did not affect our final conclusion or inference because our main results were highly significant since their P values were less than 0.05 or even less than 0.001. Third, it Brefeldin_A is not known which ventilator strategies (e.g., low tidal volume strategy, lung recruitment, etc.) were used in each patient and for how long, and if any additional therapies were used (e.g.

4 3 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) The thermal behavior

4.3. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) The thermal behavior of the blend films was performed with a thermal analysis selleck inhibitor instrument (DSC1 STAR System, Mettler Toledo, Switzerland) at a heating rate of 10��C/min and nitrogen gas flow rate at 50mL/min.2.4.4. Mechanical Properties Mechanical properties were used to determine the performance of materials expected to undergo stresses during utilization. The tensile strength and percent elongation at the breakage of the blend films were determined at dry state. Samples were cut into rectangular (10mm �� 30mm) pieces, and average thickness of four different locations was measured with a micrometer. The tensile properties of the blend films were examined with a tensometer (Instron 8872, Instron Ltd., UK) at constant rate (15mm/min).2.4.5.

Swelling Property Water absorption property of the CS/SF blend films was determined by immersion in PBS (pH 7.4) at 37��C for 24h. The wet weight (Ws, swollen weight) and dry weight (Wd, dried at 65��C overnight) were measured. Then, the swelling index was calculated as shown in (1).Swelling??index??=(Ws?Wd)??��100Wd.(1)2.4.6. In Vitro Enzymatic Degradation Degradation of the CS/SF blend films was determined as percentage of weight remained after incubation in lysozyme solution. According to Nwe et al. [27], samples with known dry weight (Wo) were immersed in PBS pH 7.4 containing 10��g/mL lysozyme at 37��C for 4 weeks and refreshed weekly. At various time points (1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks), the samples were removed and dried at 65��C overnight.

The dried samples were weighed and determined as dry weight after degradation (Wt) and the percentage of the remaining weight was calculated as shown in (2).%??Weight??remained??=??(WtWo)??��??100.(2)2.5. Biocompatibility of Fibroblast Cells and CS/SF Blend Films2.5.1. Indirect Cytotoxicity Test Before culture, the CS/SF blend films were sterilized with 75% ethanol and immersed in fresh culture medium for 24h. Biocompatibility was tested with human dermal fibroblasts (HDF; PromoCell, Germany), for which the 7�C11 passages of HDF cells were used.The cytotoxicity test of the CS/SF blend films was adapted from the ISO10993-5 [28], an international standard method for testing medical devices. The cell viability was determined after being incubated with the extraction medium from the prepared film.

The extraction medium was obtained by incubating the sterile CS/SF blend films at 37��C in fresh culture medium at extraction Batimastat ratio of 10mg/mL. After 24h, the extraction medium was diluted to final concentration of 0.5, 1, and 2.5mg/mL. The fibroblast cells were seeded in 96-well plate at a density of 1��104cells/well and incubated in culture medium for 24h, then replaced with various concentrations of extraction medium, and cultured for further 5 days without any change of medium.


Patient selleck chemicals suffering from CAD might suffer loss of coenzyme Q10 under higher oxidative stress [11�C14]. Subjects in the case group showed a significant higher lipid peroxide (MDA) level than control (Figure 2, P < 0.01), which is an indicator of free radical-induced damage during myocardial ischemia [24, 25]. There was a significant negatively correlations between the plasma coenzyme Q10 and MDA levels (Table 2, Model 1), but the statistical significance disappeared after adjusting for the potential confounders of CAD (Table 2, Models 2 and 3). In addition to oxidative stress, we assessed the activities of the major antioxidant enzymes directly involved in the neutralization of ROS. The activities of CAT and GPx were significantly lower in the case group compared to those of the control group (Figure 2).

As shown in Table 2, there was a significantly positive relationship between the levels of plasma coenzyme Q10 and CAT or GPx (Model 1), which disappeared after adjusting for age, gender or other potential confounders of CAD (Model 2 and 3). On the other hand, the activities of SOD were significantly higher in the case group and negative correlated with the concentration of plasma coenzyme Q10, even after adjusting for the potential confounders. The role of antioxidant enzymes defense against the ROS is controversial. In CAD patients, SOD activity may increase to protect against lipid peroxidation and against ROS [15, 26]. Coenzyme Q10 may assist SOD in the uptake of superoxide radical to form oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.

Traditional CAD risk factors such as gender [23] and age [20, 21, 23, 27] may also influence the plasma coenzyme Q10 concentration. In present study, males (�� = ?0.11, P < 0.01) and older patients (�� = ?0.01, P < 0.01) had significantly lower levels of plasma coenzyme Q10 in the case group compared to those in the control group. Other CAD risk factors such as blood pressure [28], obesity [21, 29], and smoking [30] may also affect coenzyme Q10 concentration. We have examined the correlations between the plasma coenzyme Q10 concentration and blood pressure, waist to hip ratio, or smoking habits (data Batimastat not shown). There was a significantly negative correlation between the plasma coenzyme Q10 concentration and systolic blood pressure (�� = ?0.00, P = 0.01), smoking (�� = ?0.10, P = 0.04), and waist to hip ratio (�� = ?0.26, P = 0.09). Therefore, we presume that the plasma coenzyme Q10 level was lower in the case group due to oxidative stress and the traditional CAD risk factors. Coenzyme Q10 is a lipid-soluble antioxidant, that is, transported by lipids and lipoprotein (especially LDL-C, 58%) in the blood [31].

TRIA application increased plant dry weight, protein and chloroph

TRIA application increased plant dry weight, protein and chlorophyll contents, and the net photosynthetic rate in rice [9]. It has also been reported HTC that TRIA is involved in the upregulation of many genes that are involved in photosynthesis. Skogen et al. [10] reported that TRIA application increases plant growth, the number of inflorescences, and the quality of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) flowers. Many researchers have examined the effects of TRIA on vegetables and certain agronomic crops, and these studies reported stimulatory effects on crop growth, yield, and quality. It is believed that the growth regulator TRIA could also have stimulatory effects on flowering plants. However, very few studies have examined how to improve the quality and longevity of Bougainvillea plants under natural or green house conditions.

Currently, no information is available in the literature on the effects of TRIA on plant growth, flowering, and quality in potted Bougainvillea plants. This study evaluated the impacts of TRIA on improving the quality of Bougainvillea plants under natural conditions. It is proposed that TRIA application can improve the plant’s physiological activities, stimulate flowering, and increase the quality of potted Bougainvillea plants. The findings of this study will provide a basis for future research into the growth-regulating effects of TRIA on Bougainvillea and other ornamental and flowering plants.2. Materials and Methods2.1. Experimental Site and Plant MaterialThe experiments were carried out at the Plant Physiology Garden at the Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, between 2010 and 2011.

The experiments during the first season (June 2010�COctober 2010) and the second season (February 2011�CJune 2011) were performed in the same location. One-year-old seedlings of potted Bougainvillea plants were collected from a Batimastat commercial nursery in Sungai Buloh, Selangor when the plants were 0.6m long with approximately 6 to 8 secondary branches. These seedlings were planted in 7-inch pots filled with garden soil and peat soil in a ratio of 5:5. The plants were thoroughly watered when the soil appeared dry, approximately every 3 to 5 days, during the experimental period. All of the experiments, regardless of the season or year, were performed under the following normal prevailing conditions for this region: temperature 21�C32��C, maximum PAR 2000��Em?2s?1, and relative humidity of 60%�C90%. Five grams of nutrients (N:P:K, at a ratio of 12:12:17) per plant were applied at 15-day intervals. Twenty Bougainvillea plants were used for each season. A completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications was used for each season’s experiment.2.2.

Authors’ ContributionZheng-jie Huang,Yilin Zhao, Wei-yuan Luo, Ju

Authors’ ContributionZheng-jie Huang,Yilin Zhao, Wei-yuan Luo, Jun You, Shui-wen Li, Wen-cheng Yi, and Sheng-yu Wang performed the experiments and analyzed the data, and Qi Luo and Jiang-hua Yan designed the research and wrote the paper. Zheng-jie Huang and Yilin Zhao contributed find protocol equally to this research.AcknowledgmentsThis work was funded by the Key Projects of Fujian Province Technology (Grant no. 2010D026), Medical Innovations Topic in Fujian Province (Grant no. 2012-CXB-29) and also supported by Projects of Xiamen Scientific and Technological Plan (Grant no. 3502Z20124018). This research was performed in Xiamen University, China.
Information fusion [1] refers to the process in which relevant information is searched and extracted from multiple distributed heterogeneous network resources and then converted into a unified knowledge mode.

It aims at constructing effective knowledge resources for solving the problems in certain field or generating new integrative knowledge object by conversing, integrating, combining, and so forth various information coming from distributed information resources. Common information fusion algorithms can be divided into two main categories, which are probability statistics method and artificial intelligence method. Probability statistics method includes Bayes, the transformation of Bays [2], and D-S evidence reasoning [3]. It has axiomatic basis and low computational complexity and is intuitive and easy to be understood, but it needs more prior information and its applicable condition is harsher; while in artificial intelligence method, information fusion is similarly regarded as that human brain comprehensively treats information.

In this method, artificial neural network [4], support vector machine [5], and genetic algorithm (GA) [6] account for approximately 85% of the whole information fusion algorithm. And the machine learning methods, that is, swarm intelligence, artificial immune, quantum genetic algorithm, and so forth, have been applied in information fusion. This method shows fewer requirements to the prior information of object and stronger self-fitness. Moreover, the fusion of the subjective and objective information in system can be realized using this method. Most of existing intelligent algorithms are proposed based on natural evolution rule, animal collective intelligence, and life system mechanism.

However, they fail to make good use of the background factors of problems and the knowledge produced in the process of solving problems. This situation limits the natural combination of intelligent algorithm and knowledge to some extent and the full play of the role of knowledge.The researches on information Cilengitide fusion currently show a developing trend of further combining with the cognitive system-based human natural intelligence.

Previous studies have reported the mean depth

Previous studies have reported the mean depth buy inhibitor to the epidural space as ranging from 4.8 to 5.6cm in obstetric populations with variable BMI [29�C31]. In Balki et al.’s [20] study, the mean depth to the epidural space in an obese obstetric population was reported as 6.6cm (range 4.5�C8.5cm), which is the same mean calculated in our study, 6.6cm (range 4.4�C9.8cm). The depth to the epidural space was more than 8cm in 4.3% of the patients in our study, less than the 14% reported by Balki et al. [20]. Nine parturients received multiple epidural catheter placements due to inadequate relief (no more than 2 placements), but 7 of these were defined as ��late�� failures, which are more likely due to dislodgement of the catheter rather than improper placement.

This suggests that the use of EDE prior to prepuncture US can provide more accurate prediction of depth to the epidural space.5. ConclusionThe use of the epidural depth equation (EDE) prior to ultrasound visualization in the longitudinal and transverse US views results in better clinical correlation than with the use of ultrasound alone.Conflict of InterestsThe authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.AcknowledgmentThis study was funded by the Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh, USA.
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory immunomediated disease of unknown aetiology, which is significantly associated with psychological distress and impaired quality of life [1�C3]. Treatment of this condition is not curative but is aimed at inducing a temporary control of clinical manifestations and improving the impact of the disease on quality of life and the level of acceptance of the disease.

The management of a chronic disease like psoriasis is complex and is conditioned by multiple factors, including, but not limited to, the objective severity and distribution of skin lesions, the influence on psychosocial aspects, the response to previous therapies, and the presence Batimastat of concomitant psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and comorbidities. Therapeutic management of psoriasis usually requires a patient-tailored approach in which combination and sequential therapies are often considered over time in order to augment response, to optimize the safety profile, and/or to meet specific clinical needs. There is a wide armamentarium of therapeutic tools available for the treatment of psoriasis which includes topical medications, phototherapy, and systemic nonbiological and biological drugs. It is estimated that moderate-to-severe psoriasis accounts for about 25% of psoriasis patients [1], most of whom are likely to require systemic drugs or phototherapy.

Controls and patients were matched in age and gender History rev

Controls and patients were matched in age and gender. History reviewing, physical examination, and clinical examinations Imatinib Mesylate molecular weight were done in these controls and cerebrovascular diseases; other neurological diseases; kidney/liver diseases, hematological diseases, tumors, peripheral vascular diseases, and autoimmune diseases were excluded from these controls. There was no kinship among all these subjects who were Han Chinese in Liaoning Province, a region of North China. This study was approved by the Ethic Committee of China Medical University and 202 Hospital, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects before study. Questionnaire, physical examination, and laboratory examinations were performed to acquire clinical information of these subjects including age, gender, height, body weight, blood pressure, blood lipid, fasting blood glucose, past history, and history of smoking and drinking (Table 1).

Table 1Clinical information of IS patients and controls at baseline.2.2. GenotypingVenous blood (3mL) was collected from each subject and anticoagulated with EDTA. Genomic DNA was extracted with DNA extraction kit (Wizard Genomic DNA purification kit; Promega, USA). UV spectrophotometer was used to determine the concentration and purity of extracted DNA. The genomic DNA was stored at ?20��C.Four genetic loci of NOS1 (rs1483757, rs7308402, rs2293050, and rs2139733) were selected according to the gene sequence of NOS1 in dbSNP database of NCBI ( SNaPshot multiple Minisequencing technology was used for genotyping [23].

First, genomic DNA underwent amplification by multiplex PCR with the following mixture (20��L): 1xGC buffer I, 3.0mM Mg2+, 0.3mM dNTP, 1 U of HotStarTaq polymerase (Qiagen Inc.), 1��L of DNA, and 1��L of multiplex PCR primers. The primers were as follows: rs1483757F: 5��-TGCCTCCGACAACTGAGCTGAT-3�� rs1483757R:5��-GCCTGCGTGACAGAGTCAAATTC-3�� rs7308402F: 5��-GCAGGCTTATCCCATGGCTCTT-3�� rs7308402R: 5��-CCTCTGCTGGGGCATATTTCAA-3�� rs2293050F: 5��-ATGGCAGACCTGTGGTGGAGAG-3�� rs2293050R: 5��-CCCTCCACCGTTTTCCTCACAC-3�� rs2139733F: 5��-GAACACCCTGACCTTAGCTGAC-3�� rs2139733R: 5��-TTTTGTTGAACCTGGGCCTCTT-3��.Amplification was done under the following condition: 95��C 2min; 11 cycles of 94��C for 20s, 65��C�C0.5��C/cycle for 40s and 72��C for 90s; 24 cycles of 94��C for 20s, 59��C for 30s and 72��C for 90s; 72��C for 2min.

Then, 10��L of PCR products was mixed with 1U SAP (Promega) and 1U Exonuclease I (Epicentre) followed by incubation at 37��C for 1h and 75��C for 15min for inactivation. The PCR products were purified. SNaPshot multiple single-base extension reaction was done with the following mixture (10��L):5��L of Brefeldin_A SNaPshot Multiplex Kit (ABI), 2��L of purified products from multiplex PCR, 1��L of primers for extension, and 2��L of ultrapure water.

Online Resource 6: PCR amplification of the genes nptII, uidA, an

Online Resource 6: PCR amplification of the genes nptII, uidA, and virG in 5 transgenic plants and 5 rooted shoots.Click selleck compound here for additional data file.(286K, pdf)Authors’ Contribution Jos�� M. Alvarez and Ricardo J. Ord��s contributed equally to this work.AcknowledgmentsThe authors thank Dr. Kevin Dalton and Dr. Ruben Alvarez for proofreading the paper and for helpful comments. This work was supported by ��Ministerio de Educaci��n y Ciencia de Espa?a�� (AGL2009-12139-C02-01); ��Plan de Ciencia Tecnolog��a e Innovaci��n del Principado de Asturias�� (IB08-054 and FC10-COF10-07); and Predoctoral Grant from the ��Ministerio de Educaci��n y Ciencia de Espa?a�� (FPU AP2005-0140) to Jos�� M. Alvarez.
It is usual to find nonlinear equations in the modelization of many scientific and engineering problems, and a broadly extended tools to solve them are the iterative methods.

In the last years, it has become an increasing and fruitful area of research. More recently, complex dynamics has been revealed as a very useful tool to deep in the understanding of the rational functions that rise when an iterative scheme is applied to solve the nonlinear equation f(z) = 0, with f : �� . The dynamical properties of this rational function give us important information about numerical features of the method as its stability and reliability.There is an extensive literature on the study of iteration of rational mappings of complex variables (see [1, 2], for instance). The simplest and more deeply analyzed model is obtained when f(z) is a quadratic polynomial and the iterative process is Newton’s one.

The dynamics of this iterative scheme has been widely studied (see, among others, [2�C4]).In the past decade Varona, in [5] and Amat et al. in [6] described the dynamical behavior of several well-known iterative methods. More recently, in [7�C14], the authors studied the dynamics of different iterative families. In most of these studies, interesting dynamical planes, including some periodical behavior and other anomalies, have been obtained. In a few cases, the parameter planes have been also analyzed.In order to study the dynamical behavior of an iterative method when it is applied to a polynomial p(z), it is necessary to recall some basic dynamical concepts. For a more extensive and comprehensive review of these concepts, see [3, 15].

Let R:?^��?^ be a rational function, where ?^ is the Riemann sphere. The orbit of a point z0��?^ is defined as the set of successive images of z0 by the rational function, z0, R(z0),��, Rn(z0),��.The dynamical behavior of the orbit of a point on the complex plane can be classified depending on its asymptotic behavior. In this way, a point z0 is a fixed point of R if R(z0) = z0. A fixed point is attracting, repelling, GSK-3 or neutral if |R��(z0)| is less than, greater than, or equal to 1, respectively.