We report that serum levels of glial cell-line derived neurotroph

We report that serum levels of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were increased following ECT of patients with drug-resistant depression. When patients were sub-classified into ECT responders and non-responders, serum GDNF levels were significantly increased (58%) in responsive patients following ECE No significant increase was seen in non-responders. These results suggest that successful ECT may be associated with elevated serum GDNF levels. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”

hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis underlies both adaptive and maladaptive responses to stress and may be an important marker of childhood vulnerability to psychopathology, although little is known about genetic variants that influence cortisol reactivity. We therefore examined associations between

Semaxanib in vivo corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) system gene (CRH, CRHR1 and CRHBP) variants and cortisol reactivity in preschoolers. A community sample of 409 three-year-old children completed a standardized stress task to elicit HPA axis activation. Salivary samples were obtained at the baseline and at 10-min intervals post-stress for a total of six samples. Salivary cortisol was measured using standard ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) protocols and cortisol reactivity was operationalized by calculating cortisol change scores ([baseline] – [peak cortisol post-stressor]). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker panel containing 18 SNPs was used CH5183284 to tag the full-length CRH (4 SNPs), CRHR1 (7 SNPs) and CRHBP (7 SNPs) genes. Significant main effects on children’s cortisol reactivity (all ps < 0.05) were found for loci on CRHR1 and CRHBP. Haplotypes of the CRHR1 linkage region were also associated with cortisol Wilson disease protein reactivity (all ps < 0.01). Additionally, we found multiple interactions between tag-SNPs in all three gene-coding regions predicting cortisol reactivity (all ps < 0.05). Individual differences In children’s cortisol reactivity

are related to genetic variation in CRH system gene-coding regions. Our results have important implications for future research on the role of HPA axis function in the development of disorders such as anxiety and depression. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We used the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of insomnia symptoms in 100 adult patients referred for laboratory evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Sixty-one percent met ISI criteria for a moderate to severe degree of insomnia symptoms. The distribution of insomnia symptoms did not differ by OSA severity. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Neural stem cells, which reside mainly in the sub-ventricular and subgranular zones of the hippocampus, can regenerate new neuroblasts after various brain insults. Aided by vascular remodeling, these new neuroblasts migrate long distances to injured brain regions.

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