A set of inbred mouse strains (Atchley strains) including A12 DNA Damage inhibitor (E+L0) and A22 (E-L0) were generated by age-specific restricted index selection
from a baseline random-bred ICR mouse population obtained from Harlan Sprague-Dawley [Atchley et al. (1997) Genetics 146(2):629-640; Indianapolis, IN, USA). As compared with the A22 strain, A12 mice had significantly increased early (P0-P10) body weight gain with minimal changes in late (P28-P56) body weight gain. We found that these strains also differed in brain weight, brain volume, cell proliferation, and FGF-2 levels in certain brain regions. Specifically, brain weight and volume were significantly greater in A12 mice than that in A22 mice at P10 and P28. Quantitative analysis of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling of proliferating cells showed that the number of BrdU-positive cells in the A12 strain were significantly greater in the frontal cortex and lesser in the dentate gyrus than that in the A22 strain at P28. Western blot revealed that fibroblast growth factors-2 (FGF-2), but not brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), expression was significantly increased in the frontal cortex of A12 strain at P28. Also, A12 mice exhibited decreased intra-strain social interaction and buy GW3965 increased
repetitive stereotyped behaviors at P28. Our study suggests that A12 mice may partially mimic the anatomic and behavioral traits of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders, and therefore may yield insights into the developmental mechanisms involved in their pathogenesis. (C) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Studies have indicated that temporal and prefrontal brain regions process CHIR-99021 molecular weight face and vocal information. Face-selective and vocalization-responsive neurons have been demonstrated in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and some prefrontal cells preferentially respond
to combinations of face and corresponding vocalizations. These studies suggest VLPFC in nonhuman primates may play a role in communication that is similar to the role of inferior frontal regions in human language processing. If VLPFC is involved in communication, information about a speaker’s face including identity, face-view, gaze, and emotional expression might be encoded by prefrontal neurons. In the following study, we examined the effect of face-view in ventrolateral prefrontal neurons by testing cells with auditory, visual, and a set of human and monkey faces rotated through 0 degrees, 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees, and 30 degrees. Prefrontal neurons responded selectively to either the identity of the face presented (human or monkey) or to the specific view of the face/head, or to both identity and face-view.