The ability of male and female rats to mount delayed-type hyperse

The ability of male and female rats to mount delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to the T-cell-dependent antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was not altered by PFOS. There was a significant trend toward elevated KLH-specific IgG in serum

from male rats exposed to increasing levels of PFOS in diet. Splenic T- and B-cell proliferation in response to ex vivo mitogen exposure was unaffected GW2580 by exposure to dietary PFOS. In conclusion, changes in immune parameters in rat did not manifest as functional alterations in response to immune challenge with KLH and may be secondary to hepatic-mediated effects of PFOS in this model.”
“Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is one of a class of industrial chemicals known as perfluoroalkyl acids, which have a wide variety of uses as surfactants and stain repellants. The presence of fluorochemical residues in human blood, plasma, or serum from sample populations worldwide is indicative of widespread human exposure. Previous studies demonstrated that PFOS alters fatty acid metabolism in the liver of rodents and that this leads to peroxisome proliferation. This study was undertaken to (1) confirm the effects of PFOS on rat HKI-272 in vitro liver, (2) identify additional target organs and systems, and (3) further explore the biochemical and molecular changes associated with PFOS

exposure. The results confirmed that liver was a primary target for PFOS. Hepatomegaly, decreased serum triglycerides and cholesterol, and increased expression PLEKHB2 of the genes for acyl-coenzymeA

oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and cytochrome P-450 4A22 (CYP4A22) were indicative of exposure to a peroxisome proliferator. Changes in liver fatty acid profiles included increased total monounsaturated fatty acid levels and decreased total polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as an increase in linoleic acid levels and a decrease in longer chain fatty acids. These changes were similar to those induced by relatively weak peroxisome proliferators. Disruptions in hepatic fatty acid metabolism may contribute to changes in red blood cell membranes, resulting in increased lysis and cell fragility. Serum thyroid hormone levels were decreased in PFOS-treated rats, while the kidney and cardiovascular systems were not significant targets. Residue analyses indicated that PFOS accumulation in tissues was dose dependent, appearing preferentially in the liver at lower doses but increasing in serum and other organs relative to liver at higher doses.”
“Phthalate esters were reported to damage fetal and postnatal testes of experimental animals, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. The time-response effects of di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) on the expression patterns of the testicular genes in male Sprague-Dawley rats were examined for different periods of exposure (1, 7, 14, or 28 d). The steroidogenic- or spermatogenic-related gene expression patterns were measured using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

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