TMJ-responsive units were activated by ATP injections into the jo

TMJ-responsive units were activated by ATP injections into the joint space. ATP-evoked unit responses in HE2 rats were reduced significantly by topical application of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor

antagonist, D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5) in a dose-related manner, while units from LE2 were not affected. Application of the non-NMDA receptor antagonist, 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNOX), inhibited the ATP-evoked responses in both groups. Spontaneous activity of TMJ units was not influenced by AP5, whereas it was reduced by DNQX similarly in both groups. The high threshold convergent cutaneous receptive field area of TMJ units this website was not changed by AP5, whereas DNQX caused a significant reduction in both groups. These results suggest that NMDA-dependent mechanisms contribute to the enhanced ATP-evoked responses of TMJ units in superficial laminae at the Vc/C(1-2) region under high E2 conditions, while non-NMDA-dependent mechanisms modify the encoding properties of TMJ units independent of E2 status. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Angiotensin II upregulates the expression of LOX-1, a recently identified

oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor controlled by redox state which in turn upregulates angiotensin II activity on its activation. To test whether interruption of this positive feedback loop might reduce angiotensin II-induced hypertension and subsequent

renal injury, we studied LOX-1 knockout mice. After infusion with angiotensin II for 4 weeks systolic blood pressure gradually increased in the wild-type mice; this rise was significantly attenuated in the LOX-1 knockout mice. Along with the rise in systolic blood pressure, renal function (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine) decreased in the wild-type mice, but the deterioration of function was significantly less in the LOX-1 knockout Thiamet G mice. Glomerulosclerosis, arteriolar sclerosis, tubulointerstitial damage, and renal collagen accumulation were all significantly less in the LOX- 1 knockout mice. The reduction in collagen formation was accompanied by a decrease in connective tissue growth factor mRNA, angiotensin type 1 receptor expression, and phosphorylation of p38 and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase was increased in the kidneys of the LOX- 1 knockout mice compared to the wild-type mice. Overall, our study suggests that LOX-1 is a key modulator in the development of angiotensin II-induced hypertension and subsequent renal damage.”
“The mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway plays a key role in mediating estrogen actions in the brain and neuronal sensitization during inflammation.

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