Over 600 species of rattan palms (one-fifth of all palm species) occur in Old World tropical and subtropical forests (Uhl and Dransfield 1987). SB202190 supplier Calamus is the largest genus of palms with 370–400 species (Dransfield 2001). The greatest diversity of rattan genera
and species occurs in western Malesia (Dransfield AZD1152 in vivo and Manokaran 1994). The Indonesian island Sulawesi is located in East Malaysia and borders Wallace line. To date, 56 rattan species have been recorded from Sulawesi and 37 in Lore Lindu National Park (LLNP) in Central Sulawesi, where they account for approximately 75% of the palm flora (J. Mogea, pers. com.). Rattan palms have been used for a wide variety of domestic, non-market purposes by rural communities for centuries (Dransfield and Manokaran 1994). In the last century, rattan canes have become one of the world’s most valuable non-timber forest products (Ros-Tonen 2000). Approximately 20% of all rattan species are used commercially in the furniture industry or for matting and basketry, and in the 1970 s Indonesia was supplier of about 90% of the world’s requirements of rattan (Dransfield and Manokaran 1994). Rattan canes are primarily collected from wild populations in primary forests (Siebert 2001). In Malaysia, Sumatra and the Philippines, most important commercial rattan species are already threatened (Sunderland
and Dransfield 2002). While collecting rattan is illegal in LLNP, approximately 18% of the park was estimated subject to intensive commercial cane harvesting, particularly of Calamus zollingeri, in the late 1990s and early
2000s (Siebert 2004). In CHIR98014 in vitro addition, virtually all of the land surrounding LLNP is influenced by human activities such as conversion of forests into agroforestry systems or plantations and harvesting of forest products (Schulze et al. 2004; Waltert et al. 2004). Sulawesi is a poorly known but biologically important ecoregion (Cannon et al. 2007) and basic biological information on the taxonomy and ecology of the island’s rattans is lacking (Clayton et al. 2002). The density and distribution of lianas in general is known to vary with abiotic factors, including elevation, annual precipitation, seasonal precipitation, soil fertility and disturbance (Balfour and Bond 1993; Gentry 1991), and this would Atezolizumab in vivo also be expected for rattan palms. Plant species richness and changes in species composition vary markedly with elevation. Some plant groups exhibit a roughly linear decreasing richness with elevation (Acanthaceae: Kessler 2000b, Melastomataceae: Kessler 2001b), whereas others remain constant and then decline abruptly at a certain elevation (Araceae, Palmae: Kessler 2001b) or have distinctive humped-shaped patterns with maximum richness at intermediate elevations (Bromeliaceae: Kessler 2001b, ferns: Kluge et al. 2006). In general, the diversity of palms declines continuously with elevation (Bachmann et al. 2004).