Contents of iron, copper, and manganese in the roots


Contents of iron, copper, and manganese in the roots

remained at control options after foliar spraying with the mixture of metal nanoparticles; however, iron and copper contents in the leaves decreased by 15% and 49%, respectively, and manganese increased by 81%. The quantity of zinc in the roots decreased by 45%, whereas in the leaves, it went up by 23%. Thus, we faced the phenomenon of nanoparticle antagonism for iron and zinc (in the roots) when they were applied in mixture. It could be perhaps explained by aggregation of nanoparticles or toxic effects during the combined application. Manganese accumulation might be connected presumably with a photosynthetic apparatus. Foliarly applied substances, aqueous solutions of trace element salts, which are used for foliar feeding, are becoming more common nowadays. The permeability Crenigacestat order of these micronutrients through the leaf cuticle is limited by electrochemical potential and incomplete salt solubility. Using uncharged elements with smaller size including metal nanoparticles will improve the efficiency of micronutrients. The fact that nanoparticles passed through the epidermal cell

wall opens the possible application of these nanotechnology tools for agronomical purposes. Nanoparticles applied on leaf surfaces could also pass through the stomatal openings or through the bases of trichomes and then translocate to various tissues [12, 13]. Concerning their internalization in metabolism studies of dispersed phases, showed that nanoparticle solutions also contain the oxide nanoparticles, the H2O molecules, and the hydroxyl group-OH which surround metal particles. Nanoparticles Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II due to their small size can contact with nucleic acids

(causing, particularly, the formation of adducts of DNA) and proteins embedded in the membrane and can penetrate the cellular organelles and thus change function of biostructures. Further internalization occurs during endocytosis with the help of a cavity-like Epoxomicin solubility dmso structure formed around the nanoparticles by plasma membrane and then translocated to various tissues [14]. They may also cross the membrane using embedded transport carrier proteins or through ion channels. In the cytoplasm, the nanoparticles may bind with different cytoplasmic organelles and interfere with the metabolic processes at that site [15]. By ion transportation or secretion of proteins and other biological molecules, a cell can transform a binding nanoparticle surface into something very different from that initially placed into the system. Thus, the nano-biointerface is dynamically changing until a thermodynamically favorable energy state is reached [16]. Conclusions Thus, the results obtained indicate the ability of metal nanoparticles to penetrate through the seed coat. The effect of application depends upon nanoparticle composition in the solution and the way of treatment.

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