We have already shown a novel method for the fermentative product

We have already shown a novel method for the fermentative production of Ala-Gln using an Escherichia coli strain expressing l-amino acid α-ligase (Lal), which catalyzes the formation of dipeptides by combining two amino acids. In the course of Ala-Gln-producing strain development, it was revealed that Lal expression caused growth inhibition. We also found that the addition of some dipeptides, including Ala-Gln, inhibited the growth of a multiple peptidase-deficient strain.

To further increase the productivity by overcoming the Vorinostat research buy inhibitory effect of dipeptides, we focused on dipeptide transport systems. The four genes (bcr, norE, ydeE and yeeO) were selected from 34 genes encoding a multidrug-efflux transporter of E. coli as those conferring resistance to growth inhibitory dipeptides. Intracellular concentration of Ala-Gln was reduced by overexpressing these genes in a multiple peptidase-deficient strain. Palbociclib nmr Furthermore, overexpression of each gene

in the dipeptide-producing strains resulted in the increase of Ala-Gln and l-alanyl-l-branched chain amino acids titers. These results indicate that some multidrug-efflux transporters of E. coli can transport dipeptides and that enhancement of their activities is effective for fermentative production of dipeptides. Today, l-amino acids produced by fermentation are the chief products representative of industrial CYTH4 biotechnology in both volume and value (Ikeda, 2003). A variety of l-amino acids are produced by fermentation technology and applied for various fields, such as seasoning, feed additives, medical usage, etc. Although l-glutamine

is a nutritionally important amino acid for humans, it is hardly utilized as a component of parenteral nutrition due to its low solubility and instability in solution. However, l-alanyl-l-glutamine (Ala-Gln) can be used as a highly soluble and stable glutamine source in a wide range of medical and nutritional fields (Abumrad et al., 1989). Recently, we identified a novel enzyme named l-amino acid α-ligase (Lal) in Bacillus subtilis (Tabata et al., 2005; Hashimoto, 2007; Yagasaki & Hashimoto, 2008). Lal catalyzes dipeptide synthesis from unprotected l-amino acids in an ATP-dependent manner. Because Lal can take unprotected l-amino acids as substrates, it was expected that direct production of dipeptide from glucose would be possible using Lal activity. We showed that two metabolic manipulations were necessary for the fermentative production of Ala-Gln in addition to Lal expression (Tabata & Hashimoto, 2007). One is reduction of the dipeptide-degrading activity by combinatorial disruption of the dpp gene encoding dipeptide-importing protein and pep genes encoding peptidases. The other is enhancement of the supply of substrate amino acids by deregulation of glutamine biosynthesis and overexpression of l-alanine dehydrogenase (Ald) from B. subtilis.

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