“The lichen flora of southeast Alaska has been explored fo

“The lichen flora of southeast Alaska has been explored for over 100 years, but remains poorly known In the first survey of its kind from the region, we report 766 taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the Klondike Gold Rush National Historic Park Coming

from a park GSK923295 only 53 km(2) in size, this represents one of the largest numbers of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi per unit area ever reported and the largest number ever reported from any United States National Park of any size One lichen genus, four lichen species and one species of lichenicolous fungus are described as new to science Steineropsis alaskana gen et sp nov (Peltigerales), Coccotrema hahriae and Pertusaria mccroryae (both Pertusariales), Stereocaulon klondikense (Lecanorales) and Corticifraga scrobiculatae Liproxstatin-1 ic50 (Lecanoromycetes incertae sedis) The new combinations Coccotrema minutum and Nesolechia fusca are

made and Parmelia elongata is reduced to synonymy under Hypogymnia duplicata Seventy-five taxa could not be assigned a species name at this time and represent a pool of critical and/or potentially undescribed taxa Thirty-four taxa are new or confirmed for North America, including seventeen lichen taxa, one species of saprophytic Dothideomycetes, and sixteen species of lichenicolous fungi Five taxa of eastern North American distribution are reported for the west for the first time A total of 196 taxa are new for Alaska We report the presence of novel secondary chemical compounds in Bryoria, Cladonia, Hypogymnia and Pertusaria Based on a Chao analysis of single and two-time occurrences we estimate we have captured not more than 83% of the macrolichen and 64% of the microlichen flora, with the total flora likely exceeding 1000 taxa We provide an overview of the lichen inventories

with highest species number worldwide and discuss the Klondike in the context of broader patterns in lichen richness Global models of climate change in the coming century are unanimous in predicting greater temperature increases at higher latitudes than at low latitudes We hope that our data will lead to a reconsideration of the potential extent of biodiversity at high latitudes”
“Birds are capable of dexterous sensory-motor check details activities such as tool use. Reaching is a crucial component of tool use and is a vision-guided behavior in primates, in which arm movement is monitored online in a stable visual frame. However, vision-guided reaching in primates is enabled by anatomical separation of the head and arm; neck reaching in birds accompanies head movement, which produces unstable vision because the eye necessarily moves with the bill. This anatomical difference raises the question whether tool use in birds involves visuomotor mechanisms that are distinct from those in primates.

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