MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of ncRNA molecules that

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of ncRNA molecules that Entospletinib purchase function as negative regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression. miRNAs are predicted to regulate 60% of all human protein-coding genes and as such, play key roles in cellular and developmental processes, human health, and disease. Relative to counterparts that lack bindings sites for miRNAs, genes encoding proteins that are post-transcriptionally regulated by miRNAs are twice as likely to be sensitive to environmental chemical exposure. Not surprisingly, miRNAs have been recognized as targets or effectors of nervous system, developmental, hepatic,

and carcinogenic toxicants, and have been identified as putative regulators of phase I xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. In this review, we give an overview of the types of ncRNAs and

highlight their roles in neurodevelopment, neurological disease, activity-dependent signaling, and drug metabolism. We then delve into specific examples that illustrate their importance as mediators, effectors, or adaptive agents of neurotoxicants or neuroactive pharmaceutical compounds. Finally, we identify a number of outstanding questions regarding ncRNAs and neurotoxicity. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Incidental abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are identified when the abdomen is imaged for other reasons. These are common,

and many undergo incomplete radiological monitoring. The association EGFR inhibitor between monitoring completeness and population-based outcomes has not been studied.

Methods: A cohort of incidental AAAs (defined as previously unidentified aortic enlargement exceeding 3 cm found on an imaging study done for another reason) was linked to population-based data. Patients were followed to elective AAA repair, Cyclooxygenase (COX) AAA rupture, death, or March 31, 2009. Monitoring completeness was gauged as the sequential number of months without a recommended abdominal scan. Its association with time to elective AAA repair and time to death was measured using a multivariable Cox regression model adjusting for other important covariates.

Results: We identified 191 incidental AAAs between 1996 and 2004 (median diameter of 3.5 cm [range, 3.0-5.3 cm], median follow up of 4.4 years [range, 0.6-12.7 years]). During the study, patients spent a median of 19.4% of their time with incomplete AAA monitoring (interquartile range [IQR] 0.3%-44%); 56 patients (29.3%) had no follow-up imaging of their aneurysm. Nineteen patients (10.0%; 2.0% per year) underwent elective AAA repair, and 79 patients (37.7%; 7.6% per year) died. Independent of important covariates, people were significantly less likely to undergo elective repair (hazard ratio [HR], 0.03) and significantly more likely to die (HR, 2.

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