However, no study has investigated their at-sea behavioural patte

However, no study has investigated their at-sea behavioural patterns associated with arrival times. To explore this question, we learn more tracked breeding streaked shearwaters, Calonectris leucomelas, with GPS data loggers, which continuously recorded fine-scale movement paths during their trips. Shearwaters adjusted the onset of their homeward journeys according to wide-ranging distances between their chosen foraging areas and breeding colonies, leaving earlier from further locations. The

start time of homing was pushed forward correlating with the increased travel time expected from their homeward distance and average movement speed. This resulted in arrivals at the colony concentrated within

a few hours after sunset independent of the distances. To our knowledge, similar temporal tuning of homing trips has not been reported previously. The strong correlation between the timing and distance of homeward journeys implies this behaviour is ecologically important. Further experiments will help clarify its generality in the animal kingdom as well as proximate mechanism(s) and ultimate function( s). (C) 2011 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Megalocytivirus is an important fish pathogen with a broad Selleckchem YH25448 host range that includes turbot. In this study, proteomic analysis was conducted to examine turbot proteins modulated in expression by megalocytivirus infection. Thirty five proteins from spleen were identified to be differentially

expressed at 2 days post-viral infection (dpi) and 7 dpi. Three upregulated proteins, i.e. heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), Mx protein, and natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF), were further analyzed find more for potential antiviral effect. For this purpose, turbot were administered separately with the plasmids pHsp70, pMx, and pNKEF, which express Hsp70, Mx, and NKEF respectively, before megalocytivirus infection. Viral dissemination and propagation in spleen were subsequently determined. The results showed that the viral loads in fish administered with pNKEF were significantly reduced. To examine the potential of Hsp70, Mx, and NKEF as immunological adjuvant, turbot were immunized with a DNA vaccine in the presence of pHsp70, pMx, or pNKEF. Subsequent analysis showed that the presence of pNKEF and pHsp70, but not pMx, significantly reduced viral infection and enhanced fish survival. Taken together, these results indicate that NKEF exhibits antiviral property against megalocytivirus, and that both NKEF and Hsp70 may be used in DNA vaccine-based control of megalocytivirus infection. Biological significance This study provides the first proteomic picture of turbot in response to megalocytivirus infection.

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