Blood analysis All blood samples were obtained in duplicate aseptically from the fingertip via lancet (Accu-Chek Safe-T-Pro Plus single-use sterile lancets, Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) and collected in 100 μL electrolyte balanced heparin coated capillary tubes (Radiometer, West Sussex, UK). Samples were immediately analyzed (95 μL) for whole blood glucose and lactate
using a clinical blood gas and electrolyte analyzer (ABL 800 basic, blood gas and electrolyte analyzer, Radiometer, West Sussex, UK). Nutritional intervention Participants consumed three different beverages all matched for energy content: CHO only (67 g.hr-1 of maltodextrin derived from corn starch); CHO-PRO (53.1 g.hr-1 of maltodextrin, 13.6 g.hr-1 of whey protein concentrate); or CHO-PRO-PEP (53.1 g.hr-1 of maltodextrin, 11.0 g.hr-1 of whey protein Selleck Mocetinostat selleck kinase inhibitor concentrate, 2.4 g.hr-1 of peptides (fish meat hydrolysate extracted from salmon)). Treatment beverages were blinded by the manufacturer and provided in powder form (Nutrimarine Life Science, Bergen, Norway). Prior to each trial the powder was weighed (Kern EW 120-4NM electronic bench-top scales, Kern & Sohn GmBH, Belingen, Germany) and subsequently mixed with water (magnetic stirrer HI-200 M, Hanna Instruments,
Bedfordshire, UK) in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations, with the addition of 5 ml of lemon food flavoring added to each total dose (1080 ml) to enhance blinding and palatability. All solutions were administered via an opaque drinks bottle. Participants consumed 180 ml of each respective beverage every 15 min of the 90 min cycle starting at the onset of exercise. Statistical analysis All statistical analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics 19 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Central tendency
and dispersion of the sample data are reported as the mean and standard MI-503 deviation for normally distributed Histamine H2 receptor data and the median and interquartile range otherwise. Comparisons of means across the three experimental conditions and time (where applicable) for all outcome variables were performed using the MIXED procedure. The factors Condition and Time were both included in the model as categorical variables for body mass, urine osmolality, time trial time, mean and peak power output and VO2. Time was treated as a continuous variable for heart rate, RER, blood glucose concentration, blood lactate concentration and RPE. The residuals for the urine osmolality model were positively skewed, which was corrected with natural log transformation of the observed data. Two-tailed statistical significance was accepted as p < 0.05. Results Body mass and urine osmolality There were no significant differences between experimental conditions for body mass, (F = 0.001, p > 0.99) or urine osmolality (F = 0.03, p = 0.97) before exercise.