1988; Lendzian et al 1981) It has been shown

1988; Lendzian et al. 1981). It has been shown Stattic nmr that for non-aggregated RCs (molecular weight 100 kDa) in detergent containing buffer at 25°C the molecular tumbling is fast enough to average out the g anisotropy and all hfc anisotropies of the proton coupling tensors in P•+ (Lendzian et al. 1981). Since ENDOR-in-solution experiments suffer

from sensitivity problems (Kurreck et al. 1988; Möbius et al. 1982; Plato et al. 1981), Special TRIPLE is usually used. This technique employs one microwave and two radio frequencies, the latter are symmetrically swept around the nuclear Larmor frequency of the respective nucleus being probed (here 1H). With respect to ENDOR, the method has a higher resolution and is less sensitive to the balance of electron and nuclear relaxation rates (Kurreck et al. 1988; Möbius et al. 1982; Plato et al. 1981). For these reasons, Special TRIPLE has a significant advantage when investigating P•+, which gives a weak signal and TPCA-1 cell line provides congested spectra. In a series of ENDOR and TRIPLE studies of P•+ in RCs both in liquid solution and single crystals, several hfcs have been resolved and unambiguously assigned (Geßner et al. 1992; Lendzian et al. 1993; Artz et al. 1997; Rautter et al. 1994; 1995; selleck chemicals 1996; Müh et al. 2002). In general, for samples in liquid solutions, the technique of Special TRIPLE is well

suited to obtain high-quality spectra that can be used to gain Casein kinase 1 detailed insight into the spin and charge distribution within P•+. These techniques have also been used to investigate

the effect of a number of different mutations in bacterial photosynthetic RCs (Artz et al. 1997; Rautter et al. 1995; 1996; Müh et al. 1998; 2002; Lubitz et al. 2002). In general, the surrounding protein environment has been found to play a critical role in determining the properties of the electronic states of P (Allen and Williams 2006; Williams and Allen 2008). In wild type, there is one hydrogen bond between His L168 and the acetyl group of ring A (PL) (Fig. 1b). Mutants with the number of hydrogen bonds to the conjugated system of P ranging from zero to four have midpoint potentials from 410 to 765 mV, compared to 505 mV for wild type (Lin et al. 1994). These mutants also show significant shifts in the spin density distribution over the two halves of P (Rautter et al. 1995; Artz et al. 1997; Müh et al. 2002). The shifts of the P/P•+ midpoint potential and spin density are correlated and provided the basis for detailed theoretical models of the electronic structure of P•+ (Müh et al. 2002; Reimers and Hush 2003; 2004). In addition to hydrogen bonds, electrostatic interactions have been shown to influence the energy of P•+. These interactions have been probed by insertion or removal of ionizable residues at several different residue positions located ~10–15 Å from the primary donor (Williams et al.

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