We generated Cx39 deficient mice by replacing the coding region of the Gjd4 gene by DNA coding for the enhanced green fluorescent protein eGFP. Adult Cx39 deficient mice exhibit no obvious phenotypic alterations of skeletal muscle compared to wild type mice in the resting state. However, myogenesis in Cx39 deficient embryos is accelerated as indicated by increased myogenin expression
on ED13.5 and ED16.5 and increased expression of Cx43 in developing skeletal muscle. In addition, the regeneration process of skeletal muscle in Cx39 deficient mice is accelerated as shown by a 2 day earlier onset of MyoD and myogenin expression, relative to wild type littermates. Interestingly, Cx43 expression was also upregulated in Cx39 deficient mice during regeneration of skeletal muscle. We hypothesize that Cx43 may compensate for R406 chemical structure the loss of Cx39 during myogenesis and regeneration. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A wide variety of bacteria are recognized by the complement system through the early components that trigger the three pathways of complernent activation, leading to the release of biologically active products involved in opsonization, check details recruitment of phagocytes and bacterial killing. Deficiencies of complement
components and regulators provide a model to understand the in vivo role of complement as a defense system against bacterial infections. An increased susceptibility to these types of infections is frequently seen in individuals with C2, C3, late component, properdin and factor I deficiencies. The identification of these deficiencies is essential for the adoption of preventive measures aimed to reduce the risk of bacterial infections. Vaccination represents the treatment of choice to protect these subjects, although further studies on a large number of C-deficient individuals are needed to prove the protective effect of vaccines. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All
“Asymmetrical cranial vaults resulting from external forces on an infant’s head can be caused by abnormal sutural development (synostotic selleckchem plagiocephaly) or abnormal external forces acting on an intrinsically normal, developing cranium (deformational plagiocephaly).\n\nThe incidence of posterior plagiocephaly has increased dramatically since the initiation of the “Back to Sleep” campaign against sudden infant death syndrome. The majority of cases are due to deformational plagiocephaly, but rigorous diagnostic evaluation including physical examination and radiological imaging must be undertaken to rule out lambdoid synostosis in extreme or refractory cases.\n\nUnique clinical features and radiological examination using computed tomography technology are helpful in confirming the correct cause of posterior plagiocephaly.