To infer the role of serotonergic neuromodulation on the activity

To infer the role of serotonergic neuromodulation on the activity-dependent maintenance of the E-I balance, we performed continuous voltage clamp measurements of stimulation-locked conductance dynamics in Layer 5 pyramidal neurons before and

after long-term potentiation (LTP) induction, together with chronic or acute manipulation of serotonin function. When a theta-burst stimulation was applied in Layer 2/3 of 5-HT depleted cortical slices (after in vivo find more treatment with the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA)), or after in vitro perfusion of the potent 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100,635, we observed a persistent shift of the ratio between excitation and inhibition toward more inhibition. This was due to a strong LTP of inhibition co-aligned with a weak LTP of excitation, whereas the same protocol caused a similar potentiation of excitatory and inhibitory inputs when applied in control slices. In contrast, neither excitatory nor inhibitory postsynaptic currents were potentiated when LTP protocols were delivered in the presence of either the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram or the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT. This is the first demonstration that serotonergic neuromodulation is crucial for the

maintenance of the neocortical E I balance during high-frequency regimes. (C) 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background Luminespib Despite the high global burden of diseases caused by tobacco, valid and comparable prevalence data for patterns of adult tobacco use and PR-171 factors influencing use are absent for many low-income and middle-income countries. We assess these patterns through analysis of data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

Methods Between Oct 1, 2008, and March 15, 2010, GATS used nationally representative household surveys with comparable methods to

obtain relevant information from individuals aged 15 years or older in 14 low-income and middle-income countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam). We compared weighted point estimates and 95% CIs of tobacco use between these 14 countries and with data from the 2008 UK General Lifestyle Survey and the 2006-07 US Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. All these surveys had cross-sectional study designs.

Findings In countries participating in GATS, 48.6% (95% CI 47.6-49.6) of men and 11.3% (10.7-12.0) of women were tobacco users. 40.7% of men (ranging from 21.6% in Brazil to 60.2% in Russia) and 5.0% of women (0.5% in Egypt to 24.4% in Poland) in GATS countries smoked a tobacco product. Manufactured cigarettes were favoured by most smokers (82%) overall, but smokeless tobacco and bidis were commonly used in India and Bangladesh.

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