Thus, information on potentially important BPA exposure sources such as consumption of packaged or processed foods other than canned fruits was not available. Although we gathered detailed dietary information during the second prenatal visit using a food frequency questionnaire, a 24-hour recall survey at both www.selleckchem.com/products/Fasudil-HCl(HA-1077).html visits
might have also been more appropriate given the short half-life of BPA (Volkel et al., 2002). Additionally, although working as a cashier has been reported to be associated with higher BPA exposure in pregnant women (Braun et al., 2011), we were not able to assess this in our population due to the low number of women reporting this occupation (n = 5). Even so, median uncorrected urinary BPA concentrations in these five women were not that different than those observed in women who were unemployed or reported another profession at the time of urine sample collection (1.1 μg/L vs. 1.0 μg/L in the first prenatal visit and 1.0 μg/L vs. 1.1 μg/L in the second prenatal visit). Despite study limitations, findings from our study have several implications. First, consistent with other studies (Braun et al., 2011 and Nepomnaschy
et al., 2009), urinary BPA concentrations varied greatly within women suggesting the need for collection of multiple urine samples to better characterize BPA exposure over time and avoid exposure misclassification. The episodic nature of the exposures and the relatively short half-life of BPA (< 6 h (Volkel et al., 2002)) result check details in the observed high within-woman variability, and concentrations 4��8C reflect recent exposures. Also, variations in urinary BPA concentrations throughout the day highlight the need to consider sample collection time and the time of the last urination to correctly categorize exposure in future epidemiological investigations (Stahlhut et al., 2009 and Ye et al., 2011). Findings also suggest that, for women participating in this study, residence
time in the United States is associated with different dietary habits that influence BPA exposure. In summary, our findings suggest that there are some factors that could be modified to minimize exposures during pregnancy in Mexican-origin women (e.g., reducing soda and hamburger intake) and that sociodemographic factors may influence BPA exposure. This study supports other findings of relatively lower BPA urinary concentrations in Mexican–American populations compared with other populations, but is the first to show that factors associated with acculturation might increase BPA concentrations. Additional studies are needed to confirm our findings and evaluate determinants of BPA exposure in other populations. This publication was supported by grant numbers: RD 83171001 from the U.S. EPA, and RC ES018792 and P01 ES009605 from NIEHS. This work is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funders or CDC.