The kinetic studies of adsorption

for lead and cadmium io

The kinetic studies of adsorption

for lead and cadmium ions were found to obey a pseudo-second-order model and the adsorption of both ions was found to fit the Langmuir isotherm. The grafted fishbone was effectively used as a sorbent for the removal of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions from aqueous solution. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The grape has been classified as a non-climacteric fruit with a relatively low physiological activity. However, some studies report that transient increase selleck of endogenous ethylene production occurs just before verasion. Major problems after harvest include stem browning, berry shattering, wilting of berry, and gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. The grape is stored at -1 to 0 degrees C with 90 to 95% RH. Constant low temperature and high RH are important to control water loss and decay. Selleckchem Captisol Preharvest applications

of chitosan, abscisic acid, ethephon, or ethanol improve grape quality (skin color, decay, and weight loss) and shelf-life. Chitosan, UV irradiation, eugenol or thymol, sulfur dioxide, and chlorine dioxide gas are treated on grape after harvest in order to extend shelf-life and preserve quality. Controlled atmosphere or modified atmosphere packaging can be used as supplemental treatments to extend postharvest-life. 2-5% O(2) + 1-3% CO(2) is currently recommended for table grapes. SO(2) is used for decay control. 10-15% CO(2) in air can be used to control gray mold. Optimum range of temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric composition depends on the cultivar.”
“In the present study, to enhance the tensile and fracture toughnesses of epoxy/clay composites without compromising the strength, a modifying copolymer in-situ synthesized for clay modification during epoxy curing was incorporated to form an interpenetrating network (IPN) structure within epoxy network, leading to a double IPN structure. The IPN structure PF2341066 formed between

the clay and the modifying copolymer via ionic interaction was reversible and flexible, and expected to dissipate energy more efficiently than those involving covalent bonding or other physical interactions in polymer intercalated composites. The advantage of this double IPN structure lies in itself, which is that the two IPNs are topological interlocking within each other to make the matrix strong and tough. And our results showed that a balanced improvement in both strength and toughness of the epoxy/clay nanocomposite could be obtained by this design. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Microbial communities have the potential to control the biogeochemical fate of some radionuclides in contaminated land scenarios or in the vicinity of a geological repository for radioactive waste. However, there have been few studies of ionizing radiation effects on microbial communities in sediment systems.

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