The genes were designated bat, for Bacteriodes aerotolerance gene

The genes were designated bat, for Bacteriodes aerotolerance genes, and were shown to comprise an operon. The mutant phenotype could

be partially complemented by the addition of reducing agents and the Bat proteins were proposed to directly reduce oxidatively-damaged proteins in the periplasm or, alternatively, to help create a reduced environment in the periplasm by exporting reducing power equivalents. Interestingly, anaerobic growth selleckchem did not restore the growth rate to that of wild-type and the addition of reducing agents also increased growth of the wild-type strain, although not as dramatically as it did for the mutant. Recently, two bat Galunisertib datasheet homologs in Francisella tularensis were inactivated and the bat mutants were shown to have a reduced ability to replicate in macrophage cells and were also attenuated for virulence in a mouse model [5]. The specific function of the Bat proteins, however, was not determined in F. tularensis. Genome sequences have identified homologs in a wide variety of other prokaryotes, including all families that comprise the phylum Spirochaetes (Brachyspiraceae, Leptospiraceae, and Spirochaetaceae). Although conserved in all branches of the Spirochaetes, the number and combination of bat homologs vary by species. However, the function of the Bat proteins in spirochetes or in any other species has not been elucidated. Although pathogenic leptospires also contain

bat homologs and are more resistant to peroxide exposure than the saprophyte L. biflexa[3,

6], the pathogenic spp. are notoriously recalcitrant to targeted allelic exchange. Since L. biflexa is more amenable to genetic manipulation than pathogenic species, it serves as a model organism for genetic studies in leptospires. Therefore, we used L. biflexa to investigate the function of the Bat proteins and to better understand the response of leptospires to oxidative stress. Here, we report the engineered deletion of the three contiguous L. biflexa bat genes and characterization of the mutant phenotype and oxidative stress response. Results The bat genes are Racecadotril distributed throughout the Spirochaetes and encode conserved protein motifs Homologs of the bat genes are present in each family of the Spirochaetes (Additional file 1: Figure S1), although not in all species. In contrast to the 5 genes present in B. fragilis, L. biflexa contains 3 bat genes and the pathogenic leptospires contain 4 [2, 7–9]. However, the batB and batC genes are fused in L. biflexa, which does not appear to be the case for the pathogenic species, and explains the discrepancy in gene number. Fusions of bat coding regions also appear to have occurred in Borrelia burgdorferi and Spirochaeta thermophila (Additional file 1: Figure S1) and were also reported for F. tularensis type A strain Schu S4 [5]. Analysis of BatA and BatB sequences identified motifs predicted to mediate protein-protein interactions, (Figure 1).

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