The additional parameters measured in this study were chosen to t

The additional parameters measured in this study were chosen to target organic matter cycles associated with the landscape and in stream processing. These parameters are more difficult to place in an impairment management context and depend on multiple landscape and hydrological factors. Based on the condition of minimally impacted streams, one desired state for Ontario streams might be slow organic matter degradation rates and humic DOM conditions. Deviation away from or toward these organic matter conditions SCH727965 ic50 after a stream passes

through a golf course facility could then be used to assess the effect of the golf course in relation to the landscape and human activities in the upstream watershed. We selected six streams in southern Ontario, Canada that each passed through an 18-hole golf course (Fig. 1). For each stream, a sampling point was selected immediately up and downstream of the course. Stream and golf course facility pairs were named as GC1 through GC6 for Mariposa Brook (Oliver’s Nest Golf and Country Club), Innisfil Creek (Innisfil

Creek Golf Club), Oshawa Creek (Winchester Golf Club), Oshawa East Creek (Kedron Dells Golf Club), Graham Creek (Newcastle Golf and Country Club), Raf pathway and Baxter Creek (Baxter Creek Golf Club), respectively. The distance between up and downstream sampling points ranged from 1.1 to 3.2 km. Each of these six streams ran along or within a major section of a golf course facility and made up the mainstem of its greater stream network when branching was present. Watershed catchment area, land use and land cover of each site up and downstream of the golf course were determined from Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data for southern Ontario, Canada using analysis and hydrological toolboxes in ArcMap 9.2 software. Digital elevation models and stream networks were used to define OSBPL9 the drainage basin at each sampling point (OMNR, 2002). Stream riparian land

use and cover was calculated as percentages of each land use/cover type within a 100 m buffer strip of the stream network upstream of the sampling point (OMNR, 2008). Each stream was visited three times over a three week period (14-July to 4-August-2009). Water was collected downstream and then upstream of each golf course to avoid contaminating samples. Water samples were collected from ∼10 cm below the surface of the stream in the center of each stream. Streams were near base-flow conditions during each sampling event, which might have limited the connectivity with golf courses. Between the second and third water collection, an intense rain event occurred, which caused many of the study streams to exceed their banks (Authors personal observations). However, water samples were not collected during the rain event.

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