She was therefore treated with oral prednisolone and later,
azathioprine, for potential autoimmune enteropathy, and responded well clinically. Incidentally, during the gastroscopy, it was noted that the esophagus looked “off-color”, with multiple flat pigmented areas (Figure 1). Targeted biopsies showed melanin deposits in the dendritic cells of the basal portion of squamous epithelium and within the lamina propria (Figure 2—Masson-Fontana stain). Esophageal melanocytosis is a rare but benign condition, first described by De La Pava et al. in 1963. Its natural history is unknown, and some have suggested it may be a precursor of esophageal melanoma, although such transformation has never been reported. The esophagus does not normally contain melanocytes, but abberant migration from the neural crest may occur.
MLN2238 price Histologically, the condition is characterized by the presence learn more of increased numbers of melanocytes in the basal layer of esophageal squamous epithelium, and an increased quantity of melanin; immunohistochemistry shows staining for S100, melanin A, and HMB-45. In a recent review, only 34 cases were found in the literature, 21 of whom were Indians. However, melanocytes were identified in the esophagus in 4 to 7.7% of autopsies, suggesting only the extreme cases were detected endoscopically, seen in 0.07–0.15% of gastroscopies. The male to female ratio is approximately 2:1. Pigmentation tends to affect the mid- and lower-esophagus,
and usually appears black, but may be gray, brown, or blue. The esophagus is affected in a patchy manner, typically appearing as flat, oval or linear, irregularly delineated lesions. The etiology of the condition is poorly understood, but has been suggested to relate to chronic inflammation, such as chronic reflux esophagitis. It has been reported in association with a number of conditions, including Addision’s disease, Laugier-Hunziger syndrome, oral melanoma, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, as well as being present in up to 30% of patients with esophageal melanoma. Differential diagnoses include malignant melanoma, benign nevus (very rare, one case report only), anthracosis, exogenous dye ingestion, hemosiderosis, lipofuscin deposition, and necrosis. Androgen Receptor antagonist Due to the condition’s presumed benign course, neither treatment nor surveillance is currently indicated. Contributed by “
“We read with great interest the study by Falleti et al. in which the authors report that the rs7041 G>T and rs4588 C>A single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the vitamin D-binding protein gene are predictors of the treatment outcome of patients with chronic hepatitis C. The authors found that patients with any combination of three or more rs7041 G and rs4588 C alleles (wild type [WT+]) achieve a sustained virologic response (SVR) at a greater rate than patients with other genotypes (WT−).