Objectively, at entry, he presented fever (maximum 391°C), no al

Objectively, at entry, he presented fever (maximum 39.1°C), no alteration of consciousness or confusion, and

the patient was oriented in time, space, and person; full neurological examination was negative with the exception of intense weakness at legs. Routine blood tests were all normal, including complete blood count, liver enzymes, creatinine, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen. Serological routine tests showed previous hepatitis A (IgG positive; IgM negative), negativity of screening tests for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, syphilis, borreliosis, mycoplasma. Microbiological tests, including blood and urine cultures, were negative. CT scan of the brain with contrast, chest X-ray, and abdominal sonography did not show any alteration. For the persistent headache and fever, and for the anamnestic Target Selective Inhibitor Library report of tick bites in the woods of areas with high risk of TBE transmission, electroencephalography was performed on the third day of hospitalisation. It detected a mild—but significant—slowing of electric activity in the posterior

buy GSI-IX sectors and occasional modest slowing in the left temporal area. During hospitalization, he received symptomatic treatment only. He progressively improved: fever disappeared after 5 days and electroencephalography was completely normal 1 week after the first one. The patient left the hospital after 12 days still suffering from fatigue. The reported tick bites occurred in countries with high risk for TBE transmission, therefore blood samples were sent to the Italian National Reference Laboratory at the National Institute for Health (ISS-Istituto Nazionale di Sanità). At this laboratory, an indirect hemagglutination inhibition (IHA) test against ir 968 TBE antigen and neutralization test (PRNT) were performed. The hemagglutination inhibition test showed high positivity for TBE (> 1: 1, 280) and to West-Nile virus (WNV) (> 1: 1, 280), which was expected due to the high level of immunological cross-reactivity between these two pheromone members

of the Flaviviridae family. Nevertheless, the neutralization test showed positivity for TBE only. The described clinical case presented a typical clinical course with favorable outcome of TBE as a result of the European strain. Nevertheless, there are some aspects of this case that are worth discussing. Firstly, clinical manifestations and diagnosis occurred in a TBE-free region. Such a clinical onset in regions where TBE is frequent or at least occasionally occurring would rapidly raise the suspicion; conversely, in TBE-free regions it may not be an immediately suspected diagnosis. This case is a reminder that examination and careful medical history (or anamnesis) are extremely useful.

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