relationship was apparent between the titre of specific antibody measured to the individual vaccine antigens and the number of cysticerci detected at necropsy following the challenge infection with T. solium. Pig antiserum raised against TSOL16-GST showed no cross-reactivity with TSOL18-MBP in direct ELISA. Similarly, pig antisera raised against-TSOL18-GST showed no cross-reactivity with TSOL16-MBP. In inhibition ELISAS, addition of the homologous combinations of antigen and antisera (TSOL16 and anti-TSOL16, TSOL18 and anti-TSOL18) led to total inhibition of the sera’s reactivity in ELISA, however no inhibition was evident when heterologous combinations
of antigen and antisera (TSOL16 and anti-TSOL18, TSOL18 and anti-TSOL16) were used (data not shown). The results of the vaccine trial in which pigs were immunized with the TSOL16 recombinant antigen demonstrates selleckchem that the antigen is able to confer high levels of protection against challenge infection with T. solium ( Table 1). The homologous antigen from T. ovis, To16, was first identified from an oncosphere cDNA library by immuno-screening with antiserum raised against a 16 kDa oncosphere buy Hydroxychloroquine antigen , following experimental fractionation of protein extracts of the oncosphere and testing these extracts in sheep vaccine trials. The resulting To16 recombinant antigen was shown to reduce T. ovis infection in vaccinated lambs by 92%. These findings provided the basis for identifying a homologous
antigen in T. solium , thereby eliminating the requirement for testing of native T. Rolziracetam solium antigens in pig vaccine trials and increasing the likelihood of isolating a recombinant antigen that is protective against T. solium cysticercosis. A similar strategy was successful for developing the TSA9/TSA18 vaccine for T. saginata  and the TSOL18 vaccine antigen against porcine cysticercosis  and . The host-parasite relationship in cestodes offers a number of advantages in relation to the likelihood of successful development of vaccines , nevertheless the successes that have been achieved with cestode parasites contrasts with broader strategies based on genomic/transcriptomic/proteomic studies , , , ,  and  where isolation of large numbers of candidate vaccine antigens can be problematic for the discovery of protective antigens. In the experiment described here, TSOL45-1A did not provide statistically significant levels of protection against T. solium infection ( Table 1). This contrasts, however, with previous studies which demonstrated that pigs vaccinated with TSOL45-1A can be protected against T. solium infection  and . Flisser et al.