niger displayed a dispersed morphology During

niger displayed a dispersed morphology. During exponential growth, the mycelium remained intact and no damaged or empty hyphae were observed. Early after depletion of maltose and onset of starvation, empty hyphal compart ments emerged and the diameter of growing hyphae sig ni?cantly decreased. Throughout prolonged starvation, the fraction of empty hyphal compartments increased, but the cell wall exoskeleton appeared to remain intact. Fragmented, bro ken hyphal ghosts were rarely observed. Outgrowing thin ?laments emerged, which continued elongating in a non branching manner. Towards the later starvation phases, morphologically crippled asexual reproductive structures appeared which resembled low density conidiophores without clearly dis tinguishable phialides and metulae.

Even 140 hours after exhaustion of the carbon source, sur viving compartments were present, which often showed outgrowing hyphae bearing asexual reproductive struc tures. Secondary growth of thin hyphae was even observed within empty hyphal ghosts. Similar to our results, morphological data from A. oryzae indicate a sharp transition between thick and thin compartments in response to carbon star vation, suggesting that hyphal diameters can be used to distinguish populations of old and young hyphae formed during primary growth on the supplied carbon source and secondary growth fueled by carbon recycling, respec tively. To visualize the transition dynamics from thick to thin hyphae in response to carbon starva tion, an image analysis algorithm was developed to ana lyze hyphal diameter distributions of the cytoplasm ?lled mycelial fraction.

Microscopic pictures from samples of various cultivation time points were analyzed and prob ability density curves were plotted for the distributions of hyphal diameters. Diameters from exponen tially growing hyphae resembled a normal distribution with a mean of approximately 3 um. In response to car bon starvation, a second population of thinner hyphae with a mean diameter of approximately 1 um emerged. Throughout the course of starvation, there was a gradual transition from thick to thin hyphae for the cytoplasm ?lled fraction, suggesting that compartments of older hyphae originating from the exponential growth phase gradually underwent cell death and became empty while a new population of thin hyphae started to grow on the expense of dying compartments.

Transcriptomic response to carbon starvation To follow transcriptomic changes during carbon starva tion, total RNA was extracted from biomass harvested at di?erent time points during batch cultivation. Although di?culties to isolate Entinostat intact RNA from aging cultures were reported for A. nidulans, we could isolate total selleck chemicals llc RNA of high quality from samples up to 140 hours after deple tion of the sole carbon source, as assessed by lab on chip quality control and Northern analysis. Transient expression levels of the gamma actin encoding gene actA, the glycosyl hydrolase nagA and the regulator of asex ual

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