In this study, the RRFLP assay was applied

as a method to

In this study, the RRFLP assay was applied

as a method to differentiate between the two types of infectious laryngotracheitis virus attenuated live vaccines. Sequence analysis of ILTV vaccines revealed Verubecestat molecular weight an informative polymorphic site in the 5′-non-coding region of the infected cell protein (ICP4) gene. Unique AvaI and AIwI restriction enzyme sites were identified in the tissue culture origin and chicken embryo origin attenuated vaccines, respectively. These two informative polymorphic sites were used in a RRFLP assay to genotype rapidly and reproducibly ILTV attenuated live vaccines. Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“Free intracellular calcium ([Ca2+](i)) controls a wide range of cellular functions such as contraction, neurotransmitter and hormone release, metabolism, cell division and differentiation. Cytosolic Ca2+ levels are abnormal in cells exposed to toxicants and understanding how these levels become altered may improve our ability to design high-throughput methods for the sensitive detection of cellular responses to a toxic exposure. Because Ca2+ is involved in multiple aspects of cellular function, its role in signaling is complex. It is therefore necessary to identify the individual pathways targeted during toxicant exposure in

order to use them as a tool for predictive measurements of toxicity and as targets for prevention or reversal of injury. This review illustrates several methods available for analysis of Ca2+ responses in vitro and their applicability for understanding mechanisms of toxicity at the molecular PF-02341066 clinical trial and gmelinol cellular levels. The review will also consider the usefulness of Ca2+ imaging for predicting a unique signature for classes of toxicants. Towards this end, two methodological approaches for assessment of Ca2+ responses to toxicants are examined: steady state measurements and complex spatial and/or temporal measurements. Each of the methods described and appropriately used results in reliable and reproducible measurements which may be applied in a high-throughput fashion to individualize in vitro assessment of cellular responses caused by toxicants. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc.

All rights reserved.”
“The core antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBcAg) has been used widely as a diagnostic reagent for the identification of the viral infection. However, purification using the conventional sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation is time consuming and costly. To overcome this, HBcAg particles displaying His-tag on their surface were constructed and produced in Escherichia coli. The recombinant His-tagged HBcAgs were purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Transmission electron microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that the displayed His-tag did not impair the formation of the core particles and the antigenicity of HBcAg. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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