Heart rate variability (HRV) is an established indicator of auton

Heart rate variability (HRV) is an established indicator of autonomic nervous system activity and a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes. This study investigated the effects of two commonly used dialysate glucose concentrations SGC-CBP30 ic50 [100 mg/dl (HD100), and 200 mg/dl (HD200)] on HRV in chronic HD patients. Methods: In this prospective, randomized, controlled, single-masked, cross-over trial, subjects were randomized to receive HD100 or HD200 for a period of 3 weeks

followed by a cross-over to the respective other dialysate (www.clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00618033). Blood glucose and insulin levels were measured before and after HD. Intradialytic Holter electrocardiograms were recorded and HRV time domain, frequency domain and complexity parameters analyzed. Results: Twenty-three HD patients (age 56 +/- 12 years, 11 male, 14

black, 11 with diabetes) were studied. Diabetic subjects showed significantly higher serum glucose levels with HD200 as compared to HD100 (HD100: 146 +/- 48 mg/dl; HD200: 192 +/- 57 mg/dl; p < 0.01); this hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increase of the high-frequency band of HRV (p = 0.019), a reflection of increased parasympathetic activity. HRV did not change in nondiabetic subjects. Conclusion: In diabetic subjects, the use of HD200 increased vagal tone. Given the importance of sympathetic activation to counteract intradialytic hypotension, our findings support the use of HD100 in diabetic HD patients. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Molecules that have crucial functions in both nervous and vascular systems have attracted keen attention recently, and the Torin 1 name “”angioneurins”" has been proposed. The most striking example of angioneurins is vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF), which was originally identified as a key regulator of angiogenesis and has only recently been found to have important functions in the nervous system. In this study, we compared VEGF expression in the vasculature in the brain with that in the aorta Thiamet G and the vasculature in the kidney in mice.

In larger vessels containing smooth muscle cells, VEGF was expressed by smooth muscle cells covering the lining of endothelial cells, both in and outside the brain. In cerebral capillaries lacking smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells were closely covered by VEGF-expressing foot processes of astrocytes, whereas capillaries were surrounded by VEGF-expressing processes of podocytes in the renal glomeruli. We also found that cultured cerebral microvessel endothelial cells do not express VEGF, whereas cultured cortical astrocytes do express VEGF. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background/Aims: Impaired immune function is common in patients with chronic renal failure. Now, we determined whether serum levels of free immunoglobulin light chains predict mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis.

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