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“Background The commercial Transmembrane Transporters importance of the actinomycete Streptomyces clavuligerus lies in its ability to produce several secondary metabolites of therapeutic interest
. Among these compounds are: cephamycin C, a beta-lactam antibiotic more resistant to beta-lactamases than the structurally similar antibiotic cephalosporin C produced by filamentous fungi, and for this reason used as raw material for production of semi-synthetic antibiotics (cefotetan, cefoxitin, cefmetazole, and temocillin) [2, 3]; clavulanic acid, a beta-lactamases inhibitor whose use in conjunction with amoxicillin is the most important commercial example ; other clavams, which have antifungal properties ; and non-beta-lactam compounds such as
holomycin and tunicamycin, which have antibiotic and antitumor properties [5–7]. The biosynthetic diversity inherent to S. clavuligerus results in extremely complex metabolic regulation [8–14], which has led to different studies aimed at increasing the biosynthesis of relevant biocompounds. Among these compounds, cephamycin C has been one of the most extensively investigated [15–23]. The basic structure of this biocompound and of all other Rebamipide beta-lactam antibiotics produced by prokaryotes or eukaryotes derives from L-cysteine, L-valine, and L-alpha-aminoadipic acid. In prokaryotes, alpha-aminoadipic acid is the product of lysine degradation via 1-piperideine-6-carboxylate [24–26]. The use of exogenous lysine to enhance cephamycin C biosynthesis in cultures of producer species has been known for over thirty years [16, 20, 23, 27, 28]. Studies have shown that high lysine concentrations (above 50 mmol l-1) promote higher cephamycin C production as compared to that of culture media containing little or no lysine.