Cilnidipine per se did not influence locomotor activity in tested

Cilnidipine per se did not influence locomotor activity in tested doses. Further, cilnidipine had no influence on effect of ethanol on rotarod performance. These results support the hypothesis that neuroadaptive changes in calcium channels participate in the acquisition and the expression of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Pediatric inguinal and scrotal

surgeries for inguinal hernia, cryptorchidism and hydrocele are common and usually involve the excision of a hernia sac. Groups at many centers send hernia sacs for pathological Citarinostat analysis to identify occult disease as well as structures that may have been erroneously resected. We hypothesized that, since the incidence of significant findings is low and the associated health care costs are significant, the routine pathological analysis DMXAA price of inguinal hernia sacs is unnecessary.

Materials and Methods: After receiving institutional review board approval we retrospectively reviewed pathology reports at our institution of patients who underwent surgery with an inguinal hernia sac sent for pathological analysis from January 2000 to September 2009. The primary outcome was to determine the

incidence of clinically significant structures in hernia sac specimens. The secondary outcome was to evaluate the costs associated with analyzing these specimens.

Results: A total of 2,287 boys and 441 girls underwent some enough form of inguinal or scrotal surgery during the study. In the 2,287 boys a total of 2,657 hernia sac specimens were analyzed, of which 2 (0.08%) contained clusters of epididymal-like tubules. Most unexpected findings were likely clinically insignificant, including mesothelial proliferation in 5.6% of cases, genital duct remnants in 0.8%, lipoma in 0.23% and adrenocortical rests in 0.04%. The average cost of analyzing hernia sac specimens at our institution was approximately $ 7,100 Canadian annually.

Conclusions: Routine analysis of inguinal hernia sacs is unnecessary and

costly, and should be reserved for cases in which resection of important structures such as the vas deferens is suspected.”
“The mechanism by which chronic administration of olanzapine induces a marked weight gain in patients with schizophrenia remains unknown. We examined the influence of long-term treatment with olanzapine on plasma levels of hormones regulating food intake and energy homeostasis in schizophrenia. In this study, olanzapine was administered to 28 Japanese inpatients for 16 weeks after switching from typical antipsychotic drugs or risperidone. At endpoint, no significant changes in body weight or body mass index were found. There was a significant decrease in the plasma levels of ghrelin without any accompanying change in active, n-octanoylated ghrelin. Serum levels of leptin tended to be increased and a significant reduction in plasma cortisol levels was found.

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