(C) 2010 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“The introducti

(C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The introduction of hyperpolarized gases (He-3 and Xe-129) has opened the door to applications for which gaseous agents are uniquely suitedlung MRI. One of the pulmonary applications, diffusion MRI, relies on measuring Brownian motion of inhaled hyperpolarized gas atoms diffusing in lung airspaces. In this article we provide an overview of the theoretical ideas behind hyperpolarized gas diffusion MRI and the results obtained over the decade-long research. We describe a simple technique based on measuring gas apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and an advanced technique,

in vivo lung morphometry, that quantifies lung microstructure both in terms of Weibel parameters (acinar airways radii and alveolar depth) and standard metrics

(mean linear intercept, surface-to-volume ratio, and alveolar S63845 density) that are widely used by lung researchers but were previously Selleckchem Cyclopamine available only from invasive lung biopsy. This technique has the ability to provide unique three-dimensional tomographic information on lung microstructure from a less than 15 s MRI scan with results that are in good agreement with direct histological measurements. These safe and sensitive diffusion measurements improve our understanding of lung structure and functioning in health and disease, providing a platform for monitoring the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in clinical trials. Magn Reson Med 71:486-505, 2014. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Background Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease resulting in the targeted destruction of pancreatic beta-cells and permanent loss of insulin production. Proper glucose management results in Citarinostat solubility dmso better clinical outcomes for T1D and provides a strong rationale to identify non-invasive biomarkers indicative or predictive of glycemic control. Therefore, we investigated the association of salivary inflammation with HbA(1c) in a T1D cohort. Methods Unstimulated saliva was collected from 144 subjects

with T1D at the USF Diabetes Center. BMI, duration of diabetes, and HbA(1c) were recorded during clinical visit. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, -6, -8, -10, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, MMP-3, -8, and -9 were measured using multiplexing immunoassay analysis. To account for smoking status, salivary cotinine levels were also determined. Results Multiple linear (HbA(1c)) and logistic (self-reported gingival condition) regression analyses were performed to examine the relationships between the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) components and HbA(1c) and gingival condition (adjusted for age, duration of diabetes, BMI, and sex; model for HbA(1c) also adjusted for gingival condition and model for gingival condition also adjusted for HbA(1c)). PCA components 1 (MMP-8 and MMP-9) and 3 (TNF-alpha) were significantly associated with HbA(1c) (beta = 0.28 +/- 0.14, p = 0.

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