Bacteria were maintained at 37°C in a microaerobic atmosphere of 5% O2/10% CO2 on Campylobacter blood agar (CBA). Bacteria were passaged every 2 to 3 days, and for no more than 25 days, to minimize genetic drift. For growth in chemically defined medium , bacteria were inoculated from CBA into
tissue culture flasks containing Ham’s Selleck AR-13324 F12 (Gibco) with 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (fatty acid-free, Sigma A7906), referred to throughout as defined medium. Liquid cultures were passaged daily by dilution into fresh medium at initial densities of 1-2 × 106/ml, and used at passage 3 to 5. Cell culture grade cholesterol (>99%, Sigma) was added to F12 as a stable 10× emulsion containing 500 μg/ml cholesterol dispersed in 10 mg/ml albumin, which was prepared according to . The following media additions were carried out in like manner: β-sitosterol (synthetic, 95%), sodium taurocholate, sodium glycocholate, β-estradiol, progesterone (all from Sigma), dehydroepiandrosterone (Calbiochem), and β-coprostanol (Matreya). Doubling times were determined
during log phase growth by quantitating viable cells using the Cell Titer Epigenetics inhibitor Glo reagent (Promega) as validated and described . Measurement of biomass as CFU, as cellular protein, or as ATP have all produced consistent results. A value of 1 attomol ATP per cell PIK3C2G  was assumed for routine passage. Possible inaccuracy of this value does not fundamentally influence interpretation of data. Isogenic gene disruptions were achieved by insertion of a Campylobacter coli chloramphenicol resistance DMXAA ic50 element (cat) according to the strategy described by Chalker et al . Primers were carefully
designed so as to target sequence within open reading frames, and are listed in Table 1. Fusion PCR reactions using the PCR Extender System (5Prime) contained 2.3 nM each gel-purified template, 50 μM primer, 1× tuning buffer, 1.25 mM additional Mg++, 0.2 mM each dNTP, and .01 U/μl polymerase. Fusion cycle conditions were as follows: 94°C 2.5 min, 10 cycles [94°C 15 sec, 45°C 60 sec, 68°C 60 sec per kb], 25 cycles [94°C 15 sec, primer-specific Tm 30 sec, 68°C 60 sec per kb], final extension 68°C 6-8 min. Fusion products were reamplified with Pfx50 (Invitrogen) to increase quantity, then purified using the Qiaquick PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen). Recipient strains grown 1 day on CBA were transformed with 500 ng of the final amplicon using natural transformation [42, 43] followed by selection for 7-10 days on CBA containing 15 μg/ml chloramphenicol. To ensure allelic replacement, the resultant strains were evaluated by PCR of the genomic DNA using GoTaq (Promega) with primers specified in Table 1. PCR strategy and results are shown in Figure 1. Table 1 Primer sequences.