Although consensus guidelines recommend behavior therapy as a first-line intervention for early child behavior problems, such guidelines also acknowledge Depsipeptide mw that pharmacologic interventions (although considerably less studied and supported for early child problems) may need to constitute first-line care for children dwelling in regions with insufficient access to evidence-based
behavior therapy (e.g., American Academy of Pediatrics, 2011). Continued theoretical and empirical attention to new technologies and their transformative potential for making supported interventions available on a broad scale will be critical to ensure quality care for all families in need, regardless of traditional geographical obstacles. “
“The prevalence and psychosocial impact of peer victimization in schools has rightly warranted significant attention in health care, education, and public policy (Merrell, Gueldner, Ross, & Isava, 2008). Up to 77% of students have reported an experience with bullying Decitabine in vivo and 14% report significant negative reactions, including anxiety, depression, negative peer relationships, and lowered academic performance (Ericson, 2001, Hawker
and Boulton, 2000, Haynie et al., 2001 and Williams et al., 1996). To address the large number of youth affected, nationwide initiatives are under way to identify and decrease bullying in schools. Consensus is still building around the term “bullying,” but most Casein kinase 1 agree that bullying includes four types of aggressive behaviors: verbal (e.g., name-calling, teasing), psychological or relational (e.g., breaking up friendships, spreading rumors, social exclusion), physical (e.g., physical aggression, stealing belongings), and cyber (i.e., using the Internet, mobile phone, or other digital technology to harm others; New Jersey Department of Education, 2011). Bullying is commonly defined as “exposure, repeatedly and over time, to negative or aggressive acts on the part of one or more other students” (Olweus, 2010, p. 11). Bullying is thus differentiated
from normative interpersonal conflict in that it entails an imbalance of power, an intent to cause harm, and evidence of repeated occurrence. The occasional “push” in the hallway or argument in the lunchroom would not necessarily be defined as bullying. Some state laws (e.g., New Jersey) have gone as far as to mandate that a victim be a part of a protected class (e.g., race, gender, sexuality, disability) for an incident to be classified as “bullying” (New Jersey Anti-Bullying Bill of Rights Act, 2011). These legal terms help clarify the responsibilities of the school administrators and the consequences for youth who bully. This will be discussed later. Research has identified consistent impairment in social, emotional, and academic domains as a result of bullying.