6B) By the time that the midpalatal suture began to close (P35),

6B). By the time that the midpalatal suture began to close (P35), osteogenic gene expression was at its nadir in both intact and injured samples (Fig. 6C). Thus, in animals subjected to mucoperiosteal denudation, neither the

level of osteogenic gene expression nor the growth potential of the midpalatal suture reached its maximum developmental capacity. Bones lengthen because of mitotic activity at growth plates [50] and at sutures [3], and physical forces acting at these two types of growth centers can profoundly influence the rate of bony expansion. For example, tensile selleck chemicals llc strains across a suture line can stimulate cell proliferation and new bone formation [51] whereas contractile forces across a suture line can impede bone development [24]. Our model Enzalutamide concentration of mucoperiosteal denudation involved the midpalatal suture complex (Fig. 1; Supplemental Fig. 1), mimicking the use of the same surgical procedure in humans to correct cleft palate deformities [20], [21], [22] and [23]. Because it constitutes a growth center for the midface [52] and [53], we postulated that physical forces associated with wound repair would affect bone expansion at this site and thus contribute to midfacial hypoplasia. We used FE modeling to predict the magnitude of stresses and strains created by mucoperiosteal denudation that predicted cycles of tissue breakdown and regeneration (Fig. 2). These predications were confirmed

by histological, immunohistochemical, micro-CT analyses, and quantitative RT-PCR readouts (Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5 and Fig. 6). Thus we conclude that mucoperiosteal denudation and the wound contraction that follows alter the mechanical environment of the developing palate, creating an environment that is particularly hostile Cisplatin ic50 to the formation of bone and cartilage. As healing

ensues the mechanical environment returns to baseline, but the growth retardation caused by the initial injury was irreversible. We propose that a similar series of events occurs in those children whose initial cleft palate repair was satisfactory, but who later develop midfacial hypoplasia [14]. Our FE results are in keeping with the Hueter–Volkmann law, which defines the relationship between tensile and compressive strains and changes in bone growth. The Hueter–Volkman law is based on the observation that between multiple species and multiple locations, the rate of change at the growth plates is approximately linear [54]. The midpalatal suture growth plates also show a similar rate of change, and we propose that strains and their associated stresses predicted by our FE model (Fig. 2) lead to decreased proliferation and increased cell death that ultimately result in palatal growth inhibition (Fig. 4 and Fig. 5). Cleft palate repair patients with midfacial hypoplasia typically exhibit a narrowing of the dental arch, maxillary retrusion, and a Class III malocclusion [14].

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